A Gazetteer of Historic Asylums and Mental Hospitals in England, 1660-1948
There are many lists on the web of psychiatric hospitals, former mental hospitals or lunatic asylums. This particular list differs in that it is arranged chronologically; it also acts as an index to the hospital files at Historic England’s Archives.
It lists hospitals and/or asylums that cared for the mentally ill, concentrating on those that were purpose built, from Robert Hooke’s Bethlem Hospital of 1675 up to local authority institutions built in the 1940s – prior to the establishment of the National Health Service. The list was originally compiled from the files on these sites put together in the course of the RCHME’s survey of historic hospital conducted between 1990 and 1993. In 1993, after fieldwork had stopped, the six investigators who carried out the survey from three RCHME offices, at York, Cambridge and London, met up to exchange files so that we could each concentrate on a different hospital type. I took the asylums, and, in order to make sense of this deluge of information, I made brief notes on each site, with the approximate date of foundation, design and construction, later additions and alterations, what sort of information was in the file in terms of plans and/or photographs, and usually a snap judgment about its architectural interest. Below, more or less, are those notes. In addition is an NBR number – this is the file number, and should allow anyone to find the file at the archives of Historic England in Swindon. The results of the research were published in 1998 as English Hospitals 1660-1948, a survey of their architecture and design.
The terminology used is contemporary with the date of construction, so there are institutions for lunatics, idiots, imbeciles and mental defectives. I did consider exchanging these terms for more socially acceptable wording, but took the decision to keep to the original as historically accurate. Opinions expressed are my own, and were sometimes formed at the end of a very long day. (I confess, I have changed the odd ‘very dull’ for plain or utilitarian.) As I review these sites, I may well find that those opinions also need reviewing.
Fieldwork for the survey was carried out by the teams on a geographical division of the country. The York team covered the north, the Cambridge team the centre and south-west, while Colin Thom and I covered the south-east quarter from London, although towards the end of the project we also visited sites in the West Midlands, Staffordshire, and Avon. With my particular interest in asylums, I also visited The Retreat in York, and although Colin and I were not ‘doing’ Buckinghamshire, I grew up in Chalfont St Peter and so know the National Epileptic Centre there quite well. Often the information on the files covering the south-east is a bit thin, this is largely because I knew these sites and didn’t need to make such full notes, certainly not because they were less interesting.
Apologies for errors, typos and spelling mistakes, the latter have not been assisted by the enthusiastic autocorrect facility.
Bethlem Hospital, London
Historic England Archives, BF101992
1675 foundation stone of new hospital south of Moorfields, designed by Robert Hooke and costing £17,000. 1815 moved to Lambeth. See post Building Bedlam
Bethel Hospital, Norwich
Historic England Archives, BF100336
1712 founded by Mary Chapman on account of mental instability within her family. Building listed Grade II*.
Two wings added on south side c.1750.
Enlarged 1830s and 1850s.
1899 E. Boardman, new front range across north side of hospital.
The hospital had closed by 1995. The west wing was later converted into housing.
St Luke’s Hospital, Old Street, Islington
Historic England Archives, BF101117
1751, founded in a house in Windmill Hill, north of Moorfields, under the care of Dr Battie. In 1753 pupils were admitted, and in 1754 incurable patients accepted.
1782-4, new building, George Dane the younger, architect, costing £40,000. Extended 1841, with ‘end infirmaries’, and a chapel built in 1842.
In 1917-20 it was converted into the Bank of England Printing Works and demolished 1955-60.
Manchester Lunatic Asylum
Historic England Archives, BF102063
c.1766 established as part of the Infirmary, 2 storey building situated at end of infirmary.
Newcastle Lunatic Asylum, Warden’s Close
1767 established for the three counties of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Superseded by St Nicholas’s Hospital in 1860s.
1824 leased to Dr Hall, remained in use until c.1855. Appears on early maps.
York Asylum (Bootham Park Hospital)
Historic England Archives, BF60268
Built 1772-6 to designs by John Carr, opened 1777 for 54 patients.
1813 fire destroyed northern block, replaced by new wing in 1817, with fire-proof floors.
By 1850 two further buildings added to the north-west, one wash house, brew house etc later the recreation hall, the other wards for refractory patients.
1865 chapel by Rawlins Gould, listed but derelict in the 1990s.
1886 first three buildings joined together and main staircase moved out of front block and new one built in new building immediately behind it.
c.1890-1910 refitted internally, except committee room.
The Retreat, York
Historic England Archives, BF60269
1792-6 built to designs by James Bevans. see post The Retreat, York
Extended 1820, 1852, 1858-60.
1890s onwards remodeling by Walter Brierly, including new recreation room 1906.
1926 nurses’ home, Chapman & Jenkinson (converted to university accommodation)
Liverpool Lunatic Asylum, Lime Street
Historic England Archives, BF102616
Established in 1792 in the grounds of Liverpool Infirmary, on the site of St George’s Hall. It had accommodation for 60 to 70 patients. Three storeys, symmetrical, very plain building of fifteen bays. Decided to build a new infirmary and Asylum in Brownlow Street c.1806.
The new asylum opened in 1831, with 64 beds for patients from ‘a class above that which was ordinarily received into County Asylums’ but at reduced fee. It cost £20, 426 to build. Two storeys. Designed by Mr Foster, according to Kelly’s Directory.
Closed c.1881 and adapted for use as University College Physics Lab.
1799 small asylum for 13 patients built near to Hereford General Infirmary by which it was administered. Demolished c.1870.
Sneinton Hospital, Nottingham
Historic England Archives, BF102075 (Nottingham General Hospital)
First proposed in 1788 as part of the general hospital, the scheme got off the ground in 1810 when about £9,000 had been raised and the building opened in 1812. In appearance very like St Lukes, it was designed by Mr Ingelman of Southwell. Dr Storer, the Chairman and originator of the asylum wrote in 1809 to Dr Long Fox of Bristol concerning the use of iron as a building material and asked of its advantages aside from fire prevention. He also questioned the need for galleries, and asked for advice on the means of ventilation. Fox advocated the use of iron which would serve not only to alleviate dangers from fire, but also from lice and vermin. He was against galleries, as all that he had seen in London, York, Manchester and Liverpool were ‘cold and comfortless, subject to currents of cold air without the cheering influence of light and heat from the sun’.
In 1855 private patients were moved to the Coppice Hospital and Sneinton became the County and Borough of Nottingham Lunatic Asylum.
From 1880 Sneinton was used for the county and the town used the new Mapperley Hospital.
Sneinton was demolished and replaced by Saxondale Hospital in 1902.
St Andrew’s Hospital, Thorpe St Andrew, Norfolk
Historic England Archives, BF100458
Norfolk County Asylum
Built in 1811-14 to designs by Francis Stone.
Norfolk Quarter Sessions resolved on 11 Oct 1808 to ‘consider the expediency and propriety of providing an asylum’. In 1810 a committee was appointed ‘to consider the best means of building, erecting and managing an asylum’ and the County Surveyor prepared plans for an asylum with 100 beds at a cost of £23,000. 1811 site purchased and work began early in the following year. Opened 29 May 1814.
Plan from 1816 survives, in which year it was extended.
Extended in 1849, 1850s (John Brown architect), who also designed an unusual octagonal chapel built there in 1856-9.
Infectious diseases blocks added 1862 (Phipson, architect) Female ward blocks added in 1868 and 1873.
1880 new annex built on the north side of the road for 140 quiet cases. Designed by T. H. B. Heslop, the County Surveyor. Two storeys.
1900 alts and adds by A. J. Wood. It then became an annex for male patients with females at the old site.
Became a war hospital in the First World War.
1920 an isolation hospital built.
New Bethlem Hospital, St George’s Fields, London
Historic England Archives, BF101994
Now Imperial War Museum, see also post Building Bedlam Again
1810 new site acquired. 1812-15 new asylum built for 200 patients, James Lewis architect, two wings for criminal lunatics.
Enlarged by P. C. Hardwick.
1838 wings added by Sydney Smirke.
Further adds and alts 1848.
1926 moved to Beckenham.
1932 partly demolished.
Lancaster Moor Hospital, Lancaster
Historic England Archives, BF102622
Formerly Lancashire County Pauper Lunatic Asylum
1809 resolved to erect an asylum, plans were drawn up in 1812 by Thomas Standen of Lancaster. Opened 28 July 1816. Later had a bad reputation as pro restraint. Paul Slade Knight, Medical Officer.
1844 Select Committee Report, back-to-back cells, small airing courts. One of first (with Barming Heath) to have detached infirmary.
1845 two new wings to north and east.
In 1854 a second county asylum was built at Rainhill.
1879-83 annex built to north.
1907-38 hospital block and several villas: Cassidy House (1907), Campbell House (1909), De Vitre House (1912), Ladies Villa (1916), Gaskell House (1938). Good history written in 1948. Closure was mooted in 1991.
Old Manor Hospital, Salisbury
Historic England Archives, BF100537
Private Asylum, 1813 opened by Dr Charles Finch for 75 first class patients in Fisherton House. Formerly seems to have belonged to Charles’s father, Dr William Finch. Throughout the 19th century run by family. In 1779 had purchased nearby asylum, Laverstock House, also had two in London, Kensington House, the and The Retreat, King’s Road. Originally just house and converted outbuildings.
New ward for criminal lunatics 1850.
c.1858-61 adds to criminal and pauper wards and chapel and recreation rooms.
c.1923-1936 U-shaped ward block added to south of ballroom. Nice description of a visit to the asylum in 1850 by ‘a London Reporter’ in file.
Gloucestershire County Lunatic Asylum, Gloucester
Historic England Archives, BF100619
A fund was started for the asylum in 1794. In 1812 the County and City of Gloucester and subscribers formed a union to provide an asylum. Designs were provided by William Stark in 1813 (the year he died), work was carried through by another architect. Not completed until 1823. For 120 patients, 24 opulent, 36 charity and 60 paupers.
1835, noisy ward;
1849-50 chapel added by Fulljames and Waller;
1852 extension, new female pauper wing;
1854-5 new male pauper wing;
1856, part of the building was raised a storey. At this date subscribers bought out by City and County and it became an asylum for 400 paupers.
1857-9, Medical Superintendent’s House built opposite hospital;
1873 chapel replaced by larger one by James Maitland;
1931 Nurses Home
St Lawrence’s Hospital, Bodmin
Historic England Archives, BF100359
Cornwall Lunatic Asylum, designed on a radial plan by John Foulston c.1816. Foundation stone laid 1817 and asylum opened in 1820. Six ward wings. Classification by social class and degree of insanity: pauper, subscription, superior; noisy and/or violent, wet, incurable, ordinary, convalescent.
1838, adds George Wightwick, Medical superintendent’s house
1841-3 High Building (dem. 1964)
1847 Williams Building
1865 Carew Building- high class private patients designed by Norman and Hine and Odgers
1870-1 pauper block – Kendall by same architects
1881-4 pauper block – Rashleigh by same architects
c.1885 recreation hall, same architects
1898 Isolation hospital by Silvanus Trevail (fab name)
1901-6 large annex, échelon plan, also by Silvanus Trevail, Foster Building.
Stanley Royd Hospital, Wakefield
Historic England Archives, BF102625
Begun in 1816, opened 1818. Pauper Lunatic Asylum for the West Riding. Watson and Pritchett of York architects. Advised by Samuel Tuke, of the York Retreat. Its H-shaped plan is that recommended to the 1815 Select Committee on Madhouses by James Bevans.
St George’s Hospital, Stafford
Historic England Archives, BF101200
Staffordshire County Lunatic Asylum
Opened in 1818. A detached block added in 1876 and further additions 1880.
VCH: around the end of the 18th century money was left to build a ward for the insane at the infirmary instead the county justices and trustees of the infirmary with help of subscribers opened the Staffordshire General Lunatic Asylum, north-east of the town centre in 1818 for patients of all social classes. It was designed by Joseph Potter, the County Surveyor. Enlarged 1849-50 and several times after. Renamed St George’s Hospital in the late 1940s,. Became asylum entirely for paupers after Coton Hill opened in 1854. Corridor plan.
The Lawn Hospital, Lincoln
Opened in 1820 as Lincoln Lunatic Asylum, a subscription hospital. Designed by Richard Ingleman c.1818. Three ‘ranks’ of patients according to their means. First asylum to completely abandon mechanical restraint in 1837 – Robert Gardiner Hill then resident medical officer.
1894 adds and alts William Sconer, new admin including dining and recreation room on first floor and new dormitories in patients’ wings.
1936 Nurses’ home proposed.
Closed by 1988.
Warneford Hospital, Oxford
Historic England Archives, BF100584
Oxford or Radcliff Asylum. In 1812 the governors of the Radcliffe Infirmary set up a committee to investigate the practicality of erecting a lunatic asylum near Oxford. Progress was slow. First part of site acquired 1819, increased in 1821 when plans must have been finalized as tenders were advertised in May that year.
Designed by Richard Ingleman of Southwell who had surveyed the original site contemplated in 1813. Foundation stone laid August 1821 and completed 1824.
By 1832 two single-storey ranges with four rooms each had been added behind the kitchen.
1852 two wings to north, J.C. Buckler for noisy and violent patients.
1873 J. Oldrid Scott designed extension for 40 patients
1877 offices, recreation room over, wing for 23 females. Wilkinson to south of kitchen ‘virtually a second asylum block’ corresponding male wing begun 1887.
1914 nurses’ home
Countess of Chester Hospital, Chester
Historic England Archives, BF102131
Cheshire County Asylum Built 1827-9 to designs by Willliam Cole junior for 90 patients U-plan building, wings added 1849 and 1870s.
1856 new chapel
1857-62 two ward blocks added
c.1880s isolation hospital
1895-8 annex 404 beds by Grayson and ould
1911-12 female epileptics block
1911-14 annex infirmary 440 beds
1914-16 isolation hospital, mortuary and workshops
1938-9 Nurses’ Home
St Audry’s Hospital, Melton, Suffolk
Historic England Archives, BF100047
Suffolk County Asylum Established in 1827-9 by Suffolk County in the converted House of Industry built c.1767 and closed in 1826. It was enlarged and altered before opening in 1829.
1844 west wings of original building remodeled and extended by Scott and Moffatt
1862 small chapel built
1885-6 two blocks, water tower and laundry added, kitchen enlarged and recreation hall built over, Gough and Giles
c.1890 two more blocks added
1902-4 two more
1899 plans for further extension, begun 1901, included pretty isolation hospital, farm buildings stores, bakehouse, boiler house, butchers shop, attractive house for the medical superintendent, lodges and staff houses.
1912 new chapel
1926 nurses’ home, Brown and Burgess.
St Bernard’s Hospital, Ealing
Historic England Archives, BF38801
Hanwell Asylum, first Middlesex County Asylum, see post Twelfth Night at Hanwell Asylum. Western section of the building largely now converted into housing, central and eastern section remain in hospital or NHS administrative use, with some new building on the periphery. Some of the later outlying parts have been demolished. Ealing Hospital built to east. See also Lost Hospitals of London
Opened in 1831. Corridor plan. One of the first large-scale asylums, built after the 1808 County Asylums Act (38 Geo III, c.96). By 1823 only nine county asylums had been established. 1827 Visiting Justices Committee appointed to erect asylum. Advertised for land and a competition announced for a plan of an asylum for 450 inmates with extension for additional 150. Separate wards, for different classes, noisy at end of building. Windows secure but provide view. Not more than three storeys.
1828 William Alderson’s plans selected in competition. He was a Quaker. Plan very like Wakefield, Glasgow etc with octagon and central stair and wings off it. Finally erected for just 300, within six months full. Cubitt asked to adapt the building for additional 200.
1835 and 1837 alts. Two new ward wings added by William Moseley
1839 Gateway to Uxbridge Road
1852 new chapell tenders
1854-7 alts and adds attic storey J. Harris. Two detached houses for medical officers
1860 decorative iron fire escapes added
1881 chapel H. Martin
1888 transferred to London County Council
1897 Nurses’ home and servants accomm.
Oakwood Hospital, Maidstone
Historic England Archives, BF86905
First Kent County Lunatic Asylum 1829 designs by John Whichcord, opened 1 January 1833 (St Andrew’s House). Corridor plan. Original building converted to housing, remainder largely demolished.
1836, 1842, 1844, 1847 adds.
1850 Chronic Insane Asylum built east of site
1867 asylum block designed by Martin Bulmer with 400 beds (Hermitage House)
1871 Hospital block, as Martin Bulmer.
1904-6 W. J. Jennings designed two larger hospital buildings (villas?)
Northwoods Private Asylum, Frampton Cottwell, Avon
Historic England Archives, BF101573
Another venture of Dr Fox’s, again converted houses? 1832. Listed. More fireproof construction, Fox Barrett system.
Forston House, Charminster, Dorset
Dorset County Asylum, established in a private house built c.1720 given to the county in 1827 by Francis Browne of Frampton together with seven acres of land and an endowment of £4,000 for the purpose of establishing an asylum
1859 committee of visitors inviting architects to compete for enlargements but it was found unsuitable for further expansion and a new site was acquired for a second asylum. The Justices proposed selling the old building when the new asylum opened (Herrison, built 1864), but this idea was opposed and it remained in use until 1895.
1896 partly demolished.
Plympton House Lunatic Asylum, Devon
Near Plympton, handsome early eighteenth century country house bought in 1835 by Dr Charles Aldridge for use as a private lunatic asylum. Censured in the 1844 Report of the Commissioners in Lunacy for using excessive degree of restraint. In 1844 it had 17 private and 66 pauper patients, the latter in outbuilding.
“We have observed that houses which have been formerly private mansions frequently require extensive alterations to make them fit for asylums; that the mansion is sometimes engrossed by the proprietor, his family, and a few private patients; and that the paupers are consigned to buildings which were formerly used as offices, and outhouses”.
The then proprietor, Mr Langworthy, charged more per pauper lunatic than any other private asylum in England and Wales apart from Hereford, as supply of places was scarce in Devon, most going to workhouses instead. The paupers at Plympton were described as “the refuse of the workhouses”
In 1934 Plympton House was acquired by Augustinian Care, a branch of the Sisters of St Augustine of the Mercy of Jesus, and became St Peter’s Convent, or Care Home for elderly and mentally ill patients. Staffed by nuns of the order. The home closed in 2014.
St Andrew’s Hospital, Northampton
Historic England Archives, BF100470
Northampton General Lunatic Asylum Established for both paupers and private patients. In 1804 the General Infirmary received a bequest to make provision for ‘persons of disordered mind’. Further gift of 100 guineas offered in 1806 but no action. 1814 sub committee to look after asylum fund. Eventually, in 1833, Governors decided to build asylum. 1834 site purchased. 1835 competition for design: 70 patients, 50 paupers and 20 private. Won by Mr Wallett, seems to have been an apothecary at Bethlem Hospital. Foundation stone laid 1836, opened 1838.
1840-1 new wings added for 60 patients ‘of lowest rank’ and new laundry
1843 two further wings planned (?built)
1856 new pauper wing planned
1853 G G Scott produced plans for (Gothic) chapel built 1861-3
1868 plans for enlarging, addl storey
1874-6 paupers removed to new County Asylum at Berry Wood, workshops converted to luxury apartments for wealthier patients.
1882-5 Recreation hall built and central block virtually rebuilt
1888 new laundry old one converted to female infirmary and dormitories over, new lodge
1897 new wing completed Charles Dorman
1927 admission unit S. F. Harris opened ‘Wantage House’
1929 Nurses’ Home
Fielding Johnson Building, Leicester University
Historic England Archives, BF102001
Leicestershire County Lunatic Asylum
Opened in 1837 and built to designs by Wallett and Wm Parsons (list description)
1897 two new blocks for 50 patients each: The Hospital, 12 June 1897 p.187: ‘The asylum is an old one, and it was proposed to make various alterations, and plans for these were prepared, but the Lunacy Commissioners refused to sanction them. The visitors reconsidered the matter, and finally decided that further additions were not advisable, and they recommended that a new asylum be built on a fresh site. This was proposed many years ago, but for some reason or other it fell through’
By 1915 OS appears as disused, but was still in operation 1903.
Whitchurch Asylum, Llangarren, Hereford & Worcester, near Ross
In existence by 1837 when it was licensed to receive 35 males and female lunatic patients, 20 of whom must be lunatic paupers. Plan 1839 by M. Millar in Herefordshire Record Office.
Hull Borough Asylum
Historic England Archives, BF102577
Erected as a private asylum c.1838 in Asylum Lane, later Argyle Street. It was taken over in 1849 as the borough asylum by the Corporation of Hull.
1876 had 151 patients
1880 new asylum built to designs by Smith and Brodrick on De la Pole Farm near Cottingham
Springfield Hospital, Wandsworth
Historic England Archives, BF101087
First Surrey County Pauper Lunatic Asylum
Built 1839-41 designed by William Moseley. Corridor plan.
1847-9 and 1868 wings added by Edward Lapidge
1873-4 extended by C. H. Howell
1872 cottage hospital
1897 Idiot Children’s annex by Rowland Plumbe
1937 Nurses’ Home
Exe Vale Hospital, Exminster, Devon
Historic England Archives, BF100362
Devon County Asylum
‘the one with the wizzy pavilion-meets radial plan’
Opened in 1845 it was designed c.1842 by Charles Fowler, architect of Covent Garden market 1828-30. Listed grade II*.
1854 clock tower added to admin
1856 female block added
1860 male block
1877 adds including chapel by Joseph Neale and sanatorium
1893-1906 ext E H Harbottle new laundry, nurses’ block and buildings for paupers
report written for Threatened Buildings, and booklet on history
Royal Shrewsbury Hospital
Historic England Archives, BF101299
According to Kelly’s Directory it opened in 1845. Already taking tenders for additional buildings in 1846. The building is dated 1843.
A block plan of 1903 by A. J. Davis from County Record Office.
By 1891 had 800 patients. New wings added, designed by Thomas Groves, wing at each side, laundry, dining hall , workshops, mortuary , chapel and two lodges.
Mendip Hospital, Wells
Historic England Archives, BF100158
Somerset County Pauper Lunatic Asylum Designed in 1844 by Scott & Moffatt, won competition
1845-7 built. Eliz style cost £39,800 stone built corridor plan
1867 detached block for female patients ‘Hillside’ (convalescent females)
c.1870 Recreation hall added to rear of kitchen and chapel built about this date
1880s workshops and mortuary
1881-5 ‘Mendip View’ detached block for females
c.1901 Medical Superintendent’s house
1902-29 – isolation hospital
1936-8 Nurses’ Home
1938 George Oatley advising on recasting plan and making additions
(odd covered bridges to weird chapel)
Historic England Archives, BF100523
Oxford County and City Pauper Lunatic Asylum Designed in 1844 by R. N. Clark of Nottingham, opened 1846.
1847-8 wings added for patients from Berkshire, Abingdon and Windsor. H. J. Underwood, architect
1852-3 chapel and medical superintendent’s house by H. J. Tollit
1901-5 recreation hall built and two detached blocks for 107 patients (one for females one male) and isolation hospital with 6 beds. All by H. J. Tollit
Towards end of First World War became a Military Hospital, then in 1920 Ministry of Pensions. Similar plan to Wakefield etc with octagonal pivots.
Clifton Hospital, York
Historic England Archives, BF92384
North and East Ridings Pauper Lunatic Asylum
Dated 1845, the year they decided to build, opened 1847. Designed by Scott & Moffatt, Elizabethan style. For 144 patients.
1851 two wings added extra 100 patients. Fire destroyed laundry.
c.1856 ext 166 beds
1865 overcrowding prompted East Riding to leave union and build their own asylum (1871 opened Beverley)
1929 Medical Superintendent’s house
Cheadle Royal Hospital, Manchester
Historic England Archives, BF102240
Second Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum Site purchased 1845 at Cheadle. Competition held for plans, won by Richard Lane, for private patients but remarkably plain. Complicated classification according to wealth and fees paid.
1853 chapel (extended 1871 rebuilt 1904)
1863 four villas built (now demolished) began to admit voluntary patients
1866 three more villas
1877 new male wing
1882 new female wing
1897 infirmary added
1903 North House for 70 patients
Central Hospital, Hatton, Warwickshire
Historic England Archives, BF100821
Warwickshire County Asylum
Decided to build 1846 for 300 patients. Obtained plans from the architects of Jamaica, Derby County and Birmingham Borough Asylums. Chose Jamaica, Mr Harris. Opened 1852.
1866 ext female side
1871 Highfield, idiot asylum, erected to east, opened
1901 isolation hospital, iron construction
Rainhill Hospital, St Helens, Merseyside
Historic England Archives, BF102009
West Derby Lunatic Asylum Designed in 1846 by Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, who died in 1847. William Mosley seems to have taken over as architect to the asylum. Built 1847-51. Alternative Italianate and Elizabethan designs produced. Separate block plan. Classified patients into convalescent, noisy, and idiot and epileptic patients each in rectangular blocks with a water tower.
1856 chapel by H. P. Horner, of Liverpool. Gothic
1859-60 ext new wings on M & F sides. Changed main front to north with new entrance block. New rec hall.
1878 annex similar to Digby Hospital, Exeter – Avon Division. Designed by G. E. Grayson 1,000 patients. Enlarged 1898 add. 200 beds. 1904 two Y-plan wards added. 1912 ext.
1893 isolation hospital
1894 nurses’ home
1932 major staff housing estate 50 semi-detached houses
1937 new Rec Hall ‘Reeve Recreation hall’ Richard Owens and Son. Old one converted to kitchens.
1938 Admissions Hospital taken over as naval hospital until 1949. Now Benedict Clinic.
Prestwich Hospital, Manchester
Second Lancashire County Asylum
Designed by I & J P Holden c.1847 for 500 patients
1862 adds inc to 1,000 beds
1883-4 annex, jolly looking plan
1891 adds H. Littler & Son
1911 infirmary for females being erected
All Saints’ Hospital, Birmingham
Historic England Archives, BF100824
City of Birmingham Pauper Lunatic Asylum
1847 specifications, opened 1849. D. R. Hill who designed the adjacent prison and Wandsworth prison
Monmouth, Hereford, Brecon & Radnor County Asylum, Abergavenny
1848 designed by Thomas Fulljames, fo Gloucester and built in 1849-52 to the north of Abergavenny. The union of these counties was dissolved in 1868.
Powick Hospital, Hereford & Worcestershire
Historic England Archives, BF100247
County and City of Worcester Lunatic Asylum 1847 City and County agreed to combine to build an asylum for 200 patients. Site, White Chimneys Farm, bought same year and competition held for design. Won by Hamilotn & Medland, of Gloucester, 1848. Work began 1850, opened 1852. Similar to Maidstone.
Early adds by W. Knight 1853 including Romanesque chapel (demolished, photos of it in 1978 by RCHME)
1860 female infirmary for 40 patients des. Henry Rowe
1861 new recreation room designed by Henry Rowe, and Wyvern House, 100 female patients.
c.1866 new detached Medical Superintendent’s house
The men’s airing court, contained within the ranges on the men’s side, is shown with a central mound on 1926 OS map. In 1866 a skittle alley was made in this court and the Commissioners in Lunacy recommended that a rustic seat or sun shade should be made on the mound. Court now level.
1870-71 detached wing 134 convalescent and working men, also by Rowe
1879 mortuary and pm room
1883 annex designed for epileptics and suicidal 70 males, 140 females, 3 blocks (quite interesting pavilion plan) ‘idiots, imbeciles, chronic demented epileptics’.
Enlarged 1890-3, 1896-8.
1884 Laundry enlarged
1885 new chapel
Friern Hospital, London
Historic England Archives, BF101281
Colney Hatch Asylum, Second Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum
By the 1840s the need was apparent for a second asylum for Middlesex. Designed for 1,250 patients, it was the largest in Eurpoe. A Competition was held for the design. S.W. Dawkes, architect, was appointed in 1848 (Dawkes was a pupil of Pritchett, as in Watson & Pritchett, York) Under the terms of the competition, the asylum was to be for 1,000 patients, a third of them to be in single rooms the rest in four to five bedded dormitories. This on Conolly’s recommendations. Also fireproof construction. There was a debate at the time as to whether it should be two or three storeys (reported in The Westminster Review and The Builder).
1858 legal action against Dawkes re construction. Unsuccessful.
1857-9 enlarged by Lewis Cubitt
1896 enlarged. Temporary buildings of wood and iron
Warley Hospital, Brentwood
Historic England Archives, BF101251
Essex County Asylum Competition for the design won by H E Kendall junior in 1849. Builder George Myers. 400-450 beds. Completed July 1853. Cost £65,025 foundation stone dated 11 Oct 1851. Now converted into housing, some parts demolished.
1863 dining hall built and 3 new blocks
1870 further block added
1879 Recreation Hall built later converted to stores
1885 separate water tower built
1888 large male dormitory block
1889 detached chapel. Old chapel converted to dormitory
1895 isolation hospital
1930s adds. Nurses’ home 1930-32; Admission unit 1936; Woodside Villa 1937; laundry 1937
Roundway Hospital, Wiltshire
Historic England Archives, BF100610
Wiltshire County Pauper Lunatic Asylum Designed by T. H. Wyatt erected 1849-51 compare with Lincoln – semi-circular bits.
1858 main building extended
1888 isolation hospital built, converted to a villa in 1897
1898 extensions to main building
1897-8 recreation hall and boiler house added
1902 villa built
1913-1924 home for feeble minded, Hine & Carter Pegg
1926 Nurses’ Home
1937 chapel T. Walker
Closed 1995, and subsequently converted into housing. Now known as Drews Park Village
Pastures Hospital, Burnaston, Derbyshire
Historic England Archives, BF102238
Derbyshire County Lunatic Asylum 1849-51, designed by Henry Duesbury. This is one which had its (typical corridor) plan much reproduced including by Sibbald in Scotland. Held to be something of a model asylum at this time.
1897-8 adds, two new wards
1926 Nurses Home, G. H. Widdows (nice)
1928-9 Admissions hospital also by Widdows
1932 Medical Superintendent’s house
1933 two villas and two sanatoria for mental deficiency patients proposed
1935 tenders for two parole villas and two convalescent villas
Pastures Hospital closed in 1994.
St John’s Hospital, Bracebridge
Historic England Archives, BF102247
First Lincolnshire County Asylum. Soon after the 1845 County Lunatic Asylums Act a committee of visitors was appointed to establish an asylum. Site acquired two miles south of the city. Competition for design c.1849. J. K. Hamilton & Medland won with Italianate design, corridor plan, builder George Myers.
1887 adding a storey to wings, build two rear wings on end of old wings
1930 Admission hospital, H. S. Hall architect
1937 Nurses’ Home
The hospital remained empty for many years after closure in about 1990. Conversion to housing began around 2014 by developers Mabec, working with Lincolnshire estate agents Piggot & Crone.
Essex Hall Hospital, Colchester
Historic England Archives, BF101600
Eastern Counties Asylum
Established for the feeble minded, idiots and imbeciles of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. Originally the Railway Hotel, built in 1840. 1852-9 it was a branch of Earlswood Asylum and in 1859 became the Eastern Counties Asylum (Kelly’s Directory). But seems to have been in use as an asylum for idiots since Christmas 1849.
The hotel was built by Lewis Cubitt for Sir Morton Peto, called the Victoria Hotel. Competition from established hotels quickly ruined it. In 1848 Dr Andrew Reid established an Idiot Asylum at a house in Highgate and Peto offered the hotel to him until Earlswood should be completed.
St John’s Hospital, Stone, Bucks
Historic England Archives, BF100256
Buckinghamshire County Asylum
Building commenced on the Bucks County Asylum in 1850 to the designs of David Brandon (perhaps with T. H. Wyatt) and opened in 1852. It provided accommodation for 200 patients. Good plans and perspective of original building.
1864 Brandon plans for addl storey at N and S ends of F wing and addl wing on north end – Creslow Ward
1867 Chapel men’s ward to correspond with Creslow. (listed, but attrib to Brandon in 1850s)
1876-8 adds dormitories and single rooms, 32 epileptic and suicidal patients. Clock tower over entrance
1891 new workshops
1891-1904 adds and imps by R. J. Thomas included two new wings, addl transepts to chapel, enlarging recreation hall
The hospital closed in 1991, all but the chapel and some staff houses were demolished and a new housing development built on the site.
Knowle Hospital, Wickham
Historic England Archives, BF100202
Hampshire County Lunatic Asylum Built 1850-2 to designs by J. Harris of Hanwell on a corridor plan. An asylum had been established in 1830 in St Peter’s Street, then moved to Lauriston House.
1875-84 ext to S inc Recreation Hall, galleries and ‘south hospital’ wards
1893 children’s block
1898 infirmary wings added at either end
late 19th century isolation hospital added
1905 Medical Superintendent’s house
1933 admission hospital J. Sheppard & Partners
The hospital closed in 1996, it was subsequently redeveloped for housing.
St George’s Hospital, Morpeth
Historic England Archives, BF102304
Northumberland County Asylum 1850-9 built to designs by Henry Welch of Newcastle
1872 two infirmaries added
1885-7 two wings, dining hall, kitchen, admin and boiler house
1903 isolation hospital
1928 Nurses’ Home
The hospital closed to in-patients in 1996, and the remainder of the hospital closed in 2006. In 2016 work was underway to redevelop the site for housing. It seems likely that little of the former hospital complex will be retained, though the plans were to incorporate old buildings ‘where possible’. [Chroniclelive report]
Royal Earlswood Hospital, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101289
Foundation stone laid by Prince Albert in 1852. Designed by W. B. Moffatt (check designs also by Robert Kerr and George Morgan?). First asylum in British Isles built to cater specifically for those with mental disabilities. 400 inmates. Established by Revd Dr Andrew Reid. Charitable foundation paid for by London Livery Companies.
1855 opened ‘National Model Asylum for Idiots’
1861 workshops added.
1877 detached infirmary Lamb and Church architects
Royal Earlswood Hospital closed in 1997, main buildings converted into apartments with new blocks of flats and a housing development built on site, the development was named Royal Earlswood Park. In the main building renamed Victoria Court, the former entertainment hall has been converted into a swimming-pool and gym for the use of residents. The workshop block has been named Edward House and the infirmary Helena House.
Coton Hill Asylum, Stafford
Historic England Archives, BF101598
Opened 1854 (VCH), designed by Fulljames and Waller of Gloucester in Gothic style for middle and upper class patients. Extended by 1880. Closed 1975 and demolished 1976 to make way for the new general hospital.
1890 theatre and recreation room erected
Makes interesting comparison with Holloway Asylum. The Builder description ‘on a scale suitable to various classes of society, with entertaining rooms, corridors for exercise…’ Second class patients had ‘a comfortable private bedroom, and the common use of a handsome gallery, sitting room, library, dining and billiard room, on the male side and the same on the female side, substituting a music room and drawing room for the library and billiard room’ Higher class patients had ‘eight distinct suites of apartments’ with apartments for a private attendant or servant, communicating with a private garden. Third class patients, galleries and associated sleeping rooms. Detached chapel. [Builder, 30 Sept 1854, pp.510-11]
Winterton Hospital, Sedgefield, Durham
Historic England Archives, BF102204
Durham County Lunatic Asylum Although first proposed building an asylum in 1827 no action taken until 1855. Purchased site and asked County Architect, John Howison, to prepare plans. Built 1857-9.
1877-9 complex for 400 chronic patients built
1884 chapel Wm Crozier
1888-9 epileptics block
1896-1914 detached villas
1932 reception hospital
The hospital closed in 1991 and all the hospital buildings demolished some years later.
Fulbourn Hospital, Cambridgeshire
Historic England Archives, BF100241
Cambridgeshire Asylum Designed in 1855 by George Fowler-Jones. Originally plans were drawn up by H. E. Kendall, as winning design in competition 1850, but were abandoned as too expensive. Fowler-Jones was aided by Samuel Hill, the Medical Superintendent of the West Riding Asylum (I think). Begun 1856, opened 1858. Plans in Ann Report of Commissioners in Lunaccy 1861.
1865 new women’s ward, W. M Fawcett
1872 new boiler house
1876 ext Rowe
1886 two new wings also by Rowe
1901-3 detached women’s block MacAlister and Tench
1920 Nurses’ Home Paul MacAlister
1925-9 two admission villas, new boiler house
1930 Medical Superintendent’s house
Garlands Hospital, Carlisle
Historic England Archives, BF102284
Cumberland and Westmoreland County Asylum Site selected 1856, and building commenced 1858. Opened 1862. Designed by Thomas Worthington of Manchester, but carried out by John A. Cory
1865-6 female block extended
1865-8 male block ext
further adds 1880s
1906-7 wards added
1931 admissions hospital
The hospital closed in 1999. Following closure the site was sold for redevelopment, much of the hospital complex was demolished, but some parts were converted to housing, including the 1905 ranges added to the south.
Fairfield Hospital, Stotfold, (Arlesey) Bedfordshire
Historic England Archives, BF100223
Three Counties Asylum, Beds, Herts and Huntingdonshire
Decided to build new asylum 1853. Site purchased 1856. George Fowler Jones of York appointed architect, he had recently designed Cambridgeshire Asylum, Fulbourn. Work began 1857, opened 1860.
1868-72 Fowler Jones added two entertainment halls, rounded ends, and garden dayrooms and upper storeys to workshops and laundry ranges
1877-82 new ward wings, epiletptics blocks, isolation hospital (plan in file) detached chapel
1935-38 Parrott and Dunham, large expansion, nurses’ home, admission hospital (interesting one, south of main site), two detached villas , medical superintendent’s house.
Second World War Emergency Medical Scheme hospital (London Chest Hospital)
Listed. Ground and first floor plans from 1861 Annual Report in file.
The hospital closed in 1999, and has since been converted to housing with a large housing development to the south.
St Francis’ Hospital, Haywards Heath, Sussex
Historic England Archives, BF101376
Massive long description of it in Journal of Mental Science April 1860. Opened 25 July 1859, designed by H. E. Kendall. Includes small plan. Polychrome brickwork. Plans approved 1856 (competition won) by Commissioners in Lunacy, work began June 1857, designed strictly in accordance with the rules of the Commissioners. Three storeys high.
1866 ext. and semi-detached buildings for infectious cases
1873 chapel added
1876 new infectious wards, Henry Card, architect
1907 water tower added G. G. Gibbins, architect
The hospital closed in 1995 and the buildings were converted into apartments, renamed Southdowns Park.
The Coppice Hospital, Notts
T. C. Hine (George’s pa) 1857-9 registered hospital to attract private patients.
Designed for 100 patients of the upper and middle classes. It closed in 1986 and was converted into apartments, known as Hine Hall.
Barnwood House Lunatic Asylum, Gloucester
Historic England Archives, BF100621
Established in 1858 in a converted house which was adapted by Fulljames and Waller. House early 19thC villa. For paying patients previously at county asylum (Horton Road Hospital). Wings were added to either side of house and a winter garden erected in garden grounds. Opened 1860.
1869 chapel built, F. S. Waller, enlarged 1887
1889 Recreation rooms added and block for excitable and destructive females added in 1893
1890 isolation block, Waller and son
1896-7 rebuilt original house to include medical superintendent’s residence.
1968 closed, wings demolished
reminds me of Normansfield.
Herrison Hospital, Charminster, Dorset
Historic England Archives, BF100244
Second Dorset County Asylum 1860-3 designed by H. E. Kendall. Competition held in 1859, plans approved 1860, building opened 1863.
1864 Chapel opened
1890 major extension by G. T. Hine, opened 1895, female side of asylum and bought Herrison Farm
1894-7 new chapel
1902-4 Herrison house built, also designed by Hine, for private patients
1912 three-storey wing added to north of corridor in middle of Hine’s wing of 1890s, for convalescent patients.
Good Y-plan Nurses’ home, by George Oatley and partner (demolished). Two-storey centre, Ruskinian number – rendered wings three storeys. Herrison House nice.
The hospital closed in the early 1990s and the site developed for housing – retaining and converting the principal earlier ranges – named Charlton Down.
Glenside Hospital, Bristol
Historic England Archives, BF101325
Bristol Lunatic Asylum, Opened 1861. Formerly lunatics had been accommodated at St Peter’s Hospital, which was more of an almshouse almost. See post Bristol Lunatic Asylum, now the Glenside Campus of UWE
1873 plans for enlargement carried out 1875-7
1880 plans for detached chapel and ‘throw present chapel into the hall’ chapel built 1882
1884 new workshop block, mortuary etc plans approved completed 1888
1887-91 ext by Henry Crisp and Oatley
1888 improvements to admin department, plans submitted, built 1890
1895 onwards, minor adds and alts
‘typical corridor-plan hospital of the 1860s’ [Elaine Harwood] Description from Annual Report of Commissioners in Lunacy for 1861 (PP.1862 XXII) Attractive example.
Stone House Hospital, Dartford, Kent
Historic England Archives, BF101214
City of London Asylum, Built 1862 to designs by J. B. Bunning. Listed in 1992.
1876 wings added
1878 infectious hospital Horace Jones
1888 chapel by Andrew Murray (check, Kelly gives 1898-1900 and opened 1901)
plan interesting version of corridor with broader corridors, large day rooms and dormitories and fewer single rooms, much more broken up than earlier asylums.
Brookwood Hospital, Woking
Historic England Archives, BF101586
Second Surrey County Asylum,Knaphill Asylum
Built 1862-7 to designs by C. H. Howell, County Surveyor.
1861 site being considered
1876 laundry and chapel doubled in size, and new workshops, cottage hospital for 16 patients, ward for 100 males and block for 300 females.
1924 Nurses’ Home F. J. Hodgson
1928 reception hospital, also Hodgson
1929 Nurses’ Home ext
1931 four villas and sick hospital, TB block (poss. 1937 not 31), isolation block
Broadmoor, Crowthorne, Berkshire
Built as the State Criminal Asylum, 1863, to designs by Major-General Joshua jebb architect of the Model Prison at Pentonville. Three storey and basement, polychrome brick, small round-arched windows.
St Matthew’s Hospital, Staffordshire
Historic England Archives, BF101405
Burntwood Asylum, Second Staffordshire County Asylum Opened 20 Dec 1864 designed by William Lambie Moffatt
1867 East wing built, chapel completed
1890s bay windows added
considerably enlarged by 1928
St Nicholas’ Hospital, Gosforth
Historic England Archives, BF102585
Newcastle City Asylum (Coxlodge Asylum)
Built 1865-9 as the asylum for the county borough of Newcastle. William Lambie Moffatt. Foundation stone laid August 1866. Cost £65,000, about 200-250 beds. Stone, two storey, large dining hall/recreation hall with chapel over (gutted by fire 1986) with seating. Recreation hall with Royal Doulton tiles ornamenting proscenium arch.
Accommodation comprises large dormitory on one side of gallery and singe rooms on other. Was threatened with closure and partial demolition.
1884 ext A. B. Plummer, new blocks at E and W ends connected by corridor
1892-1900 ext John W Dyson competition judged by Hine. The present buildings, which accom over 400 patients, will be adapted for female patients and the extension devoted entirely for male patients. BN ill and plan (échelon).
1916 last of recent extensions completed, two villas for 40 patients each, nurses’ home, isolation hospital with six beds.
1939 tenders for admission hospital, R. G. Roberts and A. Anderson
Wonford House, Exeter, Devon
Historic England Archives, BF100362 (Part of Exe Vale Hospital)
Wonford House was built 1865-9 to replace St Thomas’s Lunatic Asylum for private patients. For 120 patients, designed by W. F. Cross. Good solid stone building, reminds me almost of Pilkington’s RSNH at Larbert.
Only additions were Recreation Hall and theatre, and chapel.
Hellesdon Hospital, Norwich
Historic England Archives, BF100570
Norwich City Asylum, 1876-80 designed by R. M. Phipson, built in 70s though designed by him in 1866. Plain, two-tone brick, two storey, corridor plan. (check, is this same as Norfolk Borough Lunatic Asylum, for which site bought 1866 but building delayed. Guardians had previously run an asylum until c.1863. OS map 1885 marks disused asylum. Demolished) See also Hospital Investigator (1)
1934-6 Admission Hospital W. H. Town, very nice with lots of verandas, single storey. This appears to have been demolished, but the older buildings remaining. A Y-plan ?nurses’ home also survives, but there is much new development on the large site. Still in hospital use 2015.
Parkside Hospital, Macclesfield, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102006
Second Cheshire County Asylum, 1866 designed by Robert Griffiths of Stafford and site acquired. Building erected between 1868 and 1871 on ‘block system’ for just over 700 patients. Handsome, Italianate polychrome red brick
1891 epileptic wards added and 1902
1895 isolation hospital
1902 Nurses’ Home
1902-5 Annex, space-invader plan, infirmary (cf. Springfield)
1909 two detached blocks
1911-12 villas for private patients
1938 colony extension, six villas and kitchens villas for voluntary patients and two assistant medical officer houses
Towers Hospital (Leicester Borough Asylum)
Historic England Archives, BF100792
Original Leicestershire asylum seems to have opened in May 1837, part of university buildings. 1867 tenders accepted for new asylum designed by E. L. Stephens, borough surveyor, opened 1869. Originally contained 274 beds in each division on ground and first floor. Two wards (front and back) second floor associated dormitories, 24 single rooms, 2 padded, 2 strong rooms. Cost incl site and equip £48,858. Attractive building, multi-gabled façade end bays with ships hull/ogee-shaped gables.
1883 wing added by R. J. and J. Goodacre of Leicester
1890 another new wing by Goddard and Paget
1898-1901 ext add 348 beds and new recreation hall and admin. G. T. Hine, predictable wiggle en échelon, quite utilitarian
1913 new laundry
1930 competition for nurses’ home A E and T Sunday foundation st laid March 1931
Royal Albert Hospital, Lancaster
Historic England Archives, BF102624
Built 1867-73 as Northern Counties Idiiots Asylum
1864 James Brunton of Lancaster offered £2,000 to purchase and equip a house for reception of imbecile children. Dr Edward Denis de Vitré, Lancaster, from this scheme to found instituted. Site purchased 1866, designed by E. G. Paley, foundation stone laid 1868, 1870 central block and south wing compoleted and opened in September. Illustrated London News May 1876
1882 infirmary opened ‘Rodgett Infirmary’
1886-8 Recreation Hall ‘Winmarleigh Hall’ opened by Paley & Austin, north end of block of offices
1887 Brunton House opened
1898 Storey Home opened
1898-1901 Ashton Wing for 100 patients
1904 Herbert Storey Industrial Schools and Worshops opened
1907 James Diggens (?sp) Memorial Reception House opened
1912 Farm Colon in course of erection
1913 Derby Home opened
1929 Foundation stone of Welch Home laid
Normansfield Hospital, Richmond, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101325
Established in 1868 by Dr John Haydon Langdon-Down as a private sanatorium for mentally afflicted children of aristocratic or wealthy parentage. Down’s Syndrome was named after him, he was a pioneer in the study and classification of mental illness. In 1858-68 he was Medical Superintendant at Earlswood. In 1868 he purchased an unfinished house near the Thames at Hampton Wick. It was completed by Rowland Plumbe.
1872-3 three-bay wings added on either side
1877-9 private theatre/entertainment hall (listed Grade II*)
1878 two more wings
1891 clock tower
St Mary’s Hospital, Hereford
Historic England Archives, BF100207
Hereford County and City Lunatic Asylum In 1799 a small asylum for 13 patients was built near to Hereford General Infirmary by which it was administered. This was demolished c.1870. In 1848 a new asylum was designed by Thomas Fulljames, of Gloucester and built in 1849-52 to the north of Abergavenny for the counties of Monmouth, Hereford, Brecon and Radnor with the City of Hereford. In 1868 the union of counties was dissolved and the county and city of Hereford decided to provide a new asylum. Robert Griffiths of Stafford was commissioned to propare plans for an asylum at Little Burlton, north-west of Hereford. Work was completed in 1871. It houses 400 patients, corridor-plan, brick. Plan and perspective in The Builder, and in the Annual Report at Hereford Record Office, also in G T Hine’s article in RIBAJ
c.1900 addl ward wings by Giles, Gough and Trollope
1910-11 isolation hospital added with 6 beds.
Fairmile Hospital, Cholsey, Oxfordshire
Historic England Archives, BF100397
Berkshire, Reading and Newbury Asylum Begun in 1868 to designs by C. H. Howell and opened in 1870.
1878 enlarged, again by Howell, new wings for 500 patients to north-east and north-west, recreation hall in front of the south block, enlarged chapel, dining hall, farm and laundry. Interesting example of later development of corridor plan. Handsome entrance block to original buildings.
1894 detached hospital built
1898 ward wings added by G. T. Hine
1911 six staff houses W. Roland Howell
1929-30 Medical Superintendent’s house
1934 ‘villa’ for 100 female patients
1955-6 Admission Unit, Powell & Moya
St Clement’s Hospital, Ipswich
Historic England Archives, BF100036
Ipswich Borough Lunatic Asylum Built in 1868 to designs by Mr Ribbans. Corridor plan with bay windows in corridors and dayrooms with canted bay ends and some dormitories.
Broadgate Hospital, Walkington, Beverley Humberside
Historic England Archives, BF102032
East Riding Lunatic Asylum Built 1868-71, C. H. Howell to replace asylum at Clifton which it shared with North Riding. Agreed to erect independent asylum in 1865. Italianate style. 300 patients. Very similar to Fairmile Hospital, Cholsey. Hospital history of 1991, curious illustrations.
1884 isolation hospital built temporary wooden, replaced 1886-92
1886 Medical Superintendent’s house rebuilt after fire
1890 new female wing 40 beds
1893 new male wing
1895 ext C. H. Hebblethwaite 100beds
Leavesden Hospital, Hertfordshire
Historic England Archives, BF101186
1868 designed by John Giles, of Giles & Biven, for the Metropolitan Asylums Board as one of two asylums for pauper imbeciles. Pavilion plan, 1,500 beds.
1891 Recreation Hall, A & C Harston
1903 isolation block
1904 Shepherd House, nurses’ home
1913 escape bridges, though these had been proposed back in 1902.
1926 Coles Farm acquired and new boiler house completed, and new Nurses’ Home.
?1931 two TB blocks built. (photos at LMA dated 1931 and blocks look newly built)
St Lawrence’s Hospital, Caterham
Historic England Archives, BF101292
Leavesden’s twin, built 1869-70 to designs by John Giles & Biven for the Metropolitan Asylums Board at a cost of about £85,000. Somewhat bleak.
1873 extensions by Giles & Gough, a recreation hall with a stage and a block for 160 females.
Middlewood Hospital, Sheffield
Historic England Archives, BF102230
Second South Yorkshire Lunatic Asylum/West Riding By 1866 the West Riding County Asylum at Wakefield had trebled in size and it was decided to erect a new asylum on a new site. Mount Pleasant House leased as temporary asylum from 1868. In 1869 the purchase of Wadsley Park was completed and a 70-bed asylum begun. It was completed in 1871, and opened in 1872. Designed by Bernard Hartley, the City Surveyor, plans dated 1868 – as built had ground floor north-east side males, receiving and infirmary. Reminds me of Burntwood, Lichfield (Moffatt)
1873-5 chapel (gothic)
1876 two large blocks of additional buildings, Hartley again
1877 large wing from male and smaller for females
1878 two additional ward blocks completed.
1884 laundry residence
1891 Nurses’ Home
1914 Admissions block, plans delayed?
1915 became a military hospital
1932-5 Admission hospital
1933 two convalescent villas
1936 Occupational Therapy block
Whittingham Hospital, Preston
Historic England Archives, BF102623
Fourth Lancashire County Asylum, Interesting for its transitional plan between pavilion and échelon, like Cane Hill, U-plan. Situated to the north of Preston. Site purchased and building commenced 1869, official opening 1873, though partly occupied since June 1872.
1909 planned new annex, competition for design awarded January, opened 1914 Sykes and Evans architects 790 beds. Plans reproduced in Hine’s RIBAJ article.
Middlefield Hospital, Knowle
Historic England Archives, BF100822
Midland Counties Idiots Asylum
Founded 1866, appeal for funds 1868, competition for plans 1869 won by Messrs Mathew & Quilter of London. 1872 first portion erected with 50 beds, two storeys. Plan Warwickshire RO.
1892-3 adds extra 25 beds
1901-2 ext add 40 beds plus workshops and detached hospital
1914 new infirmary block and staff quarters
1928 Assembly hall
1934 ‘The Villa’ built
St Crispin’s Hospital, Upton, Northamptonshire
Historic England Archives, BF100438
Northamptonshire County Asylum (Berrwood asylum) Site chosen 1871, built 1873-6, to designs by Robert Griffiths of Stafford. Quite severe in appearance.
1882 plans for extension, 150 patients, including epileptics and sick, completed 1884.
1885 detached hospital ‘The Home’
1886-8 idiot children’s block, 50 patients
1907 isolation hospital with 6 beds
1930 new ward block, 100 patients, Gotch & Saunders
Holloway Sanatorium, Egham, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101601 see post Holloway Sanatorium – garish or gorgeous?
Founded by Thomas Holloway, for the ‘unsuccessful of the middle classes’. Designed by W. H. Crossland, who won a competition for the design 1871-2. Patients admitted 1884, official opening 15 June 1885. ‘all exuberance of ornament and expensive detail is avoided’ was the claim, but the building itself rather belies that statement. Could knock the spots off a Flemish Renaissance Cloth Hall. ‘The central grand entrance and staircase is only used for visitors on state occasions’.
Departed from the standard ‘gallery system’ because it ‘does not conduce the comfort or general management of the building’. All day-rooms, dormitories and single rooms have a south and south-western aspect. 100 patients initially. Classification of inmates: male side four classes, 1st, 2nd, sick and feeble and excited. A quarter of patients occupying single rooms. Feeble patients all on ground and first floors. Provision for fever and infectious diseases on upper floor with separate stairs, for nurses. Attendants between day-rooms and dormitories with a glass window or doors of communication to overlook patients.
Novel rules: no patient allowed to be an inmate for longer than 12 months. No hopeless cases. No re-admission after discharge. Middle classes only.
references: Builder 24 Aug 1872, p.665; 7 Jan 1882, p.33: Surrey Record Office, Kingston, Mins Governors Meetings, annual reports from 1886. Thomas Holloway’s letter book 1869-77 re sanatorium. R. Davis ‘Thomas Holloway, Entrepreneur and Philanthropist’ in Surrey History, vol3 no.2, 1985-6
St Augustine’s Hospital, Canterbury
Historic England Archives, BF101176, mostly demolished, just the central admin block and the chapel appear to have been retained, with a large housing development on the remainder of the site.
Kent County Asylum Built in 1872-5 to designs by John Giles and Gough, originally for 870 patients. Pavilion plan, rather like a horizontal version of the MAB asylums at Caterham and Leavesden.
1887 sanatorium added with 20 beds
Five villas were added to the south of the main complex, firt two 1896, 100 beds each, probably W. J. Jennings of Canterbury.
1938 new admissions hospital and convalescent villas, designed by W. H. Robinson, Maidstone.
1930s new nurses’ home now ‘Godfrey House’
Western Counties Idiots Asylum, Kenton, Devon
Historic England Archives, BF100334 (demolished around 1992)
1874-7 designed by J. W. Rowell
1864 founded for idiot children of poorer classes, new building Gothic stone 80 children.
1900 workshops with dormitories above two blocks linked by corridor to main building
1902 Recreation Hall and gymnasium
1911 boys side new wings
1925 recreation hall enlarge
1929 scheme to move to new site, Langdon Farm
1936 tenders for new buildings
Mapperley Hospital, Nottingham
Historic England Archives, BF102635
G. T. Hine 1875. The asylum that launched his career. Second phase 1887-90. Plan in Hine’s RIBAJ article
Darenth Hospital, Dartford, Kent
Historic England Archives, BF101217
Established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board for imbecile children. Designed by A & C Harston 1875, completed 1878 in which year a second complex to the west was commenced, completed in 1880. Two infirmaries added 1881 and recreation hall 1883.
c.1888 pavilions section
St James’s Hospital, Milton, Portsmouth
Historic England Archives, BF100167
Portsmouth Borough Lunatic Asylum Designed by George Rake of Portsmouth, built 1875-9, pavilion plan, Byzantine-Gothic style. Good example of its type.
1890s extension of ward wings
1907 two villas Pink and King
First World War USA Base Hospital 33, hutted blocks
Banstead Hospital, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101258 (demolished)
Third Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum Opened 1877 designed on pavilion system on the model of Leavesden and Caterham, intended as an overflow building for quiet chronic cases, but before completed had to change to accept all cases ‘difficulties of hosuing all classes of patietns in large wards only suited to the quietest cases’
LMA set of plans of 1880 by Frederick Pownall (MA/DCP/51)
1893 adds by Hine.
Coney Hill Hospital, Gloucester
Historic England Archives, BF100593
Second Gloucestershire County Asylum Site purchased 1878, competition held for design won by John Giles & Gough 1879 to be built in phases. First échelon plan, with four pavilions to each side of admin block
1881 East Lodge block completed
1882 plans for second phase approved, included infirmary blocks, dining hall, stores, water tower ad some offices
1883 opened with small number of patients
1906 plans for extension 324 beds epileptic, working and quiet chronic; departure from 1880 plan
1934 voluntary patients’ unit completed for 24 patients.
Rubery Hill Hospital, Birmingham
Historic England Archives, BF100825
Second City of Birmingham Lunatic Asylum
1880 ‘about to erect’ 616 patients, opened 1882, to serve borough and district. Designed by Martin & Chamberlain, Gothic style, interesting variation on the pavilion or separate block plan. Compare with Durham County Asylum.
Digby Hospital, Exeter
Historic England Archives, BF60100
City of Exeter Lunatic Asylum, 1881 Exeter Corporation held competition for design of asylum which was won in the following year by R. Stark Wilkinson of Exeter. Plans approved by Commissioners in Lunacy in 1883. Opened 1886. A nice example of its type, not échelon but still aiming to find solution to problem of separating patients from service corridors and offices.
1888 chapel and farm buildings completed
Closed May 1990.
Cane Hill Hospital, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101293
Third Surrey County Asylum Opened in 1883, it was designed by C. H. Howell, County Surveyor, and transferred to the London County Council after the Local Government Act of 1888. Hine thought it was Howell’s most important work. Originally designed for 1,100-1,200 patients but later extended for 2,000. Proto-échelon plan. Chapel oddly placed behind the admin block. Plan reproduced in Hine’s RIBAJ article.
Heigham Hall Private Asylum, Norwich
Established by 1883.
Kingsway Hospital, Derby
Historic England Archives, BF102407
Derby Borough Asylum Proposed in 1846, site considered 1863, more sites considered and one acquired in 1874. Competition held for the design in 1884, won by B. S. Jacobs of Hull, and opened in 1888.
1895 isolation hospital
c.1898 block for paying patients, Albany House
1936 admissions hospital, Kingsway House, opened 1938.
Chalfont Epileptic Colony, Bucks
Historic England Archives, BF100291
National Society of Epilepsy. Established by the National Society for the Employment of Epileptics in 1884. It was founded at Skippings Farm and the first building erected was a temporary iron structure since demolished for 20 male patients. Tubbs and Roberts farms were purchased later. First permanent villa begun 1894, designed by Young & Hall, Susan Edwards House (now demolished) for male patients. Largest dormitories 9 beds, all upstairs.
1896-8, four villas built , including in 1897 home for women, paid for by Passmore Edwards (Eleanor House) designed by E. C. Shearman (on the right near entrance). Male home built same year (? Greene House), designed by Maurice B. Adams, with dormitories on ground floor, largely singe storey with staff accommodation only in small upper floor.
1901-2 two more villas
1903 admin block ‘Passmore Edwards House’ des by Charles Grieve
1907 another vill by Adams
1908 two children’s villas deigned y Weir Shultz, Tate House and Princess of Wales House
c.1910 school building
1915 another villas
by 1925 three more villas and two or three after then. 1931 by R. West and Partners
1927 Recreation hall/Chapel extended 1959.
High Royds Hospital, Menston, West Yorkshire
Historic England Archives, BF102627
Third West Riding Asylum
1885 tenders for building, erected 1887-9 to designs by J. Vickers Edwards, County Surveyor. Early échelon plan. Hine considered it similar to Gloucester with improvements in the way of centralization and arrangement of corridors, and reproduced the plan in his RIBAJ article.
Rapidly expanded to take 1,600 patients.
Shaftesbury House, Formby, Merseyside
Historic England Archives, BF102389 (demolished)
Private asylum built by Dr S A Gill in 1886 to designs by William Parlsow.
Moorhaven Hospital, Plymouth
Historic England Archives, BF100330
Plymouth Borough Lunatic Asylum, now sensitively converted to housing, some demolition.Competition held for design 1886 architects placed third given commission because they were the cheapest. Hine & Odgers, of Plymouth. Flat échelon plan, good example of this form in a smaller asylum. Mix of random rubble stone and some brick. Some attractive elements. Plan reproduced in Building News.
1888-1891 built, initially for 200 later 400 patients.
1901 same architects designed extensions, new wing male side commenced 1903 additional (second) storey on each side. Isolation hospital, and admin extended.
1912 adds to farm buildings
1924 permanent shelter for open air treatment at female infirmary (temporary one on male infirmary previous year, planned to replace with permanent one.
1929 Nurses’ Home dated 1930 by J. Wibberley
c.1932 admission hospital J. Wibberley
1936 two convalescent villas and medical superintendent’s house
Claybury Hospital, Redbridge, London
Historic England Archives, BF101107
Fourth Middlesex County Asylum, later 5th LCC Asylum Designed y G. T. Hine in 1888 built 1889-93, competition for the design held 1887. See post Repton Park, formerly Claybury Hospital. First large-scale complete échelon-plan asylum. Accommodated over 2,000 patients. Built on the estate of Claybury Hall, a late-eighteenth-century house, which was converted and extended for private patients. Typically the asylum was virtually self-sufficient, with its own farm, large kitchens, stores, and bakery, boiler house and three water towers. Recreation hall capable of seating 1,200, with oak panelled walls, and decorative plaster ceiling. Chapel linked to main complex by a corridor. By 1887 this was against the advice of the Commissioners in Lunacy who were encouraging the provision of detached chapels, able to hold about three-quarters of the inmates. The only differences from a traditional church should be the provision of separate entrances for male and female patients, and small rooms or lobbies near the door where a patient could be taken if they became disturbed during the service.
Tone Vale Hospital, Bishops Lydheard, Somerset
Historic England Archives, BF100255
Second Somerset County Asylum 1891 competition for design won by Giles, Gough & Trollope. Work began 1892 and it opened 1897. Pavilion/échelon plan
1903 two chronic blocks added, G. T. Hine
1908 two villas planned and other minor adds
1937 Nurses’ Hostel built
Cherry Knowle Hospital, Ryhope
Historic England Archives, BF102629
Sunderland Borough Asylum
G. T. Hine won competition for this in 1892, échelon plan, for 350 patients with extension to 500. Competition was judged by C. H. Howell. ‘His award after a somewhat stormy discussion was adopted’ [Building News, 26 Feb 1892, p.303] Hine and Odgers of Plymouth were placed second.
1901-3 new male patients’ villa and Nurses’ Home J. W. Moncur, Borough Engineer
1931-3 Cherry Knowle Farm bought, ext T. P. Collinge, County Architect
1935 parole villa and two convalescent homes Williams and T. R. Millsum, architects
1936 reception block, sick hospital, Nurses’ home, boiler house etc
Second World War EMS hospital.
Interesting looking boiler house bit with reservoirs on either side.
Graylingwell Hospital, Chichester
Historic England Archives, BF101269
West Sussex County Asylum Designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield & Sons 1893 and built 1895-7. A good example of a county asylum built at the end of the 19th century on the échelon plan.
1901-2 two pavilions added
1931-3 three large new blocks and nurses’ home
article in Journal of Mental Science with ground plan. Report from 1893 by Blomfield.
Whitecroft Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight
Historic England Archives, BF100810
Built by B. S. Jacobs of Hull 1894. Transitional pavilion/échelon plan with semi-circular link corridor and pavilions off it as Cane Hill and Exeter.
Winwick Hospital, Warrington
Lancashire County Asylum
Built to ease over-crowding at the other Lancashire asylums. The Rectory Estate was purchased by the Asylums Board in 1894 on which to build new asylum for chronic cases, on lines of Caterham and Leavesden. Originally Old Hall occupied by 50 idiot boys. New asylum opened January 1902. 2,000 beds. Built to designs of Henry Crips & Oatley and W. S. Skinner (came third in competition). [Builder, 2 Oct 1897, p.272] Zig-zag version of Caterham/Leavesden – intriguing plan.
1938 new admission hospital.
St Edward’s Psychiatric Hospital, Cheddleton
Historic England Archives, BF101575
North Staffordshire Asylum (third county asylum)
Decided to invite plans for asylum in February 1893 with a competition to be judged by C. H. Howell. Wanted an asylum for 600 patients, capable of extension to 800. Foundation stone laid October 1895. Competition won by Gough & Trollope (or Giles, Gough & Trollope). First portion opened 1900 comprising admin wards for 600. Extended 1907-8. Échelon plan, listed tower, interesting looking little houses – ‘hospital villas’ patients or staff?
Admission hospital, plans prepared by K. L. Murray 1931.
Bexley Hospital, Dartford, Kent
Old Bexley Lane. Historic England Archives, BF101206, TQ 515 727
6th LCC Asylum Site chosen in 1893, plans had been drawn up by G. T. Hine by 1895, opened 1898 for 2,000. Échelon plan. This large mental hospital was built in 1896-8 to the designs of G. T. Hine. The plan was a modification of Hine’s échelon-plan at Claybury Asylum in Essex (now in the London Borough of Redbridge). It was the first asylum to be commissioned by the London County Council (LCC) and served as a model for three later asylums. When it was completed it provided accommodation for 2,000 patients who were mostly housed in the main complex. There were, however, a number of villas on the site for convalescents, new admissions and farm workers as well as the requisite isolation hospital. The mansion on the site was used as the residence for the Medical Superintendent.
Hill End Hospital, Colney Heath
Historic England Archives, BF101236
Hertfordshire County Asylum Designed in 1896 by G. T. Hine on the échelon plan. Opened in 1899 for 576 patients. Plan in Hine’s RIBAJ article. Vague memory of its being rather dull/plain.
1908 two new wings opened, 820 patients – dog leg
1917 addl block
Warlingham Park Hospital, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101587
Croydon Mental Hospital
Competition held, won in 1896 by Crisp, Oatley and Skinner, for 400 patients with expansion for 600. Fd st laid in 1900. A dog-leg échelon plan, very tall stripey water tower (French pullover stripes)
Horton Hospital, Epsom
Historic England Archives, BF101283
7th LCC asylum Building work began in 1897, replica of Bexley, échelon plan.
Manor Hospital, Epsom
Historic England Archives, BF101285
8th LCC asylum First of five LCC asylums built at Epsom on the Horton Estate, temporary construction. William C. Clifford Smith, asylums engineer, drew up plans in 1897 opened 1899.
Middleton Hall Nursing Home, Darlington
Historic England Archives, BF102299
At Middleton St George Seems to have been founded as Dinsdale Park Retreat or before that Dinsdale Spa Hotel – unless this elsewhere? Opened 1900 as a private asylum, built 1897-8 S. W. Dyson, Newcastle-on-Tyne. The hall became the superintendent’s residence. 1933 reconstructed.
Rauceby Hospital, Sleaford
Historic England Archives, BF102553
Kesteven County asylum
Built 1897-1902 for 410 patients on an échelon plan designed by Hine, and plan reproduced in his RIBAJ article. Tenders were being advertised in 1896 for a temporary asylum for Kesteven CC, a competition held in 1897 with invited architects assessed by Howell. (did he ever award a competition to anyone other than Hine?)
1934 Nurses’ Home, Medcalfe architect
1935 Admissions Hospital, nurses’ home, parole villa, doctor’s house
closed and converted to housing
Saxondale Hospital, Nottingham
Proposed 1898. Local boy Hine is passed over here, designed by E. P. Hooley, the county surveyor, on an échelon plan.
Scalebor Park Hospital
West Riding County Council decided to establish a separate asylum for paying patients c. 1898 (under terms of 1890 Act), estate acquired in 1895, new buildings were designed by J. V. Edwards, County Surveyor, Wakefield. Initially to be for 170 patients, removing 100 from existing three asylums in county. Intended to build ‘villa residences’ in park to bring total accomm to 350. Opened 1902.
House was being sold off around 1993.
Goodmayes Hospital, Chadwell Heath, Essex
Historic England Archives, BF101582
Asylum for County Borough of West Ham
Foundation stone was laid 3 August 1898. Accomm for 800 patients, designed by Lewis Angell, borough engineer. Échelon plan. Official opening 1 August 1901, copy of souvenir brochure, well illustrated and with plan from Essex Record Office.
Hollymoor Hospital, Birmingham
Historic England Archives, BF100823
Rubery Hill Asylum Annex
1898 competition for design of asylum judged by Hine awarded to Martin & Chamberlain. Opened 1905. Vaguely échelon plan.
Tooting Bec Hospital, Wandsworth
Historic England Archives, BF101131
Built between 1899 and 1903 by the Metropolitan Asylums Board as an infirmary for sick imbeciles. Later became a hospital exclusively for senile dements. Designed by A & C Harston on a pavilion plan similar to Leavesden and Caterham.
1915-25 extension of seven new ward blocks by Thomas W Aldwinckle.
Historic England Archives, BF101584
East Sussex Asylum
Plans c.1899. Visited other asylums before beginning including Hartwood, Lenzie, Gartloch and Hawkhead in Scotland, Cheddleton, Burntwood, Glamorgan, Dorchester, Isle of Wight and Chichester. Opened 1903, G. T. Hine, échelon plan with separate acute hospital (Park House) – influenced by Gartloch p’haps. Nice chapel, rest pretty utilitarian looking. Hine uses this one as his model in his RIBA paper. Designed for 1,115 with provision for extension to 1,275.
Acute hospital for 80 patients near entrance to estate and at a distance from admin building. Main asylum 840 patients of all classes. Four detached villas with 30 patients each. A block for 60 idiot and imbecile children with rooms for 15 quiet female patients who assist in nursing the children.
Plans reproduced in Journal of Mental Science 1900 and in The Hospital
The David Lewis Centre, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102134
The David Lewis Manchester Epileptic Colony Built c.1900-4 to designs by Alexander Graham. David Lewis left the majority of his fortune to be used for the benefit of the working classes of Liverpool and Manchester. Group of people in Manchester had come together in the 1890s to establish a colony for the district for epileptics. Began fund-raising in 1897 and in 1898 sought assistance of David Lewis Trustees.
Two deputations one to continent one to America in 1902, then drew up plans, although nearing completion by then – perhaps plans for management and running of the colony rather than design of the buildings.
Admin, recreation hall, hospital, kitchen, school, laundry and workshops and farm, along centre of site with separate male and female accommodation on either side. Three homes each for men and women, school house with dormitories for boys and girls and cottages. 200 patients in all.
Storthes Hall Hospital, Kirkburton, West Yorkshire
Historic England Archives, BF102003
Fourth West Riding County Lunatic Asylum Simple flat échelon plan. 1900 tenders being invited for ‘hospital and two cottages’ at Storthes Hall asylum, J. V. Edwards, County Surveyor. Admin, sick and infirm blocks, acute block, cottage homes, for 272 patients. 1906 tenders for second part of main institution. J. Vickers Edwards County Architect.
Intended to construct asylum in three stages, first to comprise acute hospital and cottage homes (35 each for ‘workers’).[BN, 21 July 1900, p.61] First part completed 1904, on estate five miles south-east of Huddersfield. In 1904 plans under consideration for main institution for further 600 patients. 1907 tenders for erection of farm buildings and residence.
1909 p.m room tenders
1915 isolation hospital
1934 Assistant Medical Officers residence, tenders W. H. Burton, architect
1935 Cl of Wks house, ext nurses’ home also Burton
1939 Medical Superintendent’s house
St Ebbas Hospital, Epsom
Historic England Archives, BF101286
LCC Epileptic Colony 1898 LCC decided to establish working colony for male epileptics. Originally going to erect temporary buildings but changed after Colney Hatch fire. William C. Clifford Smith drew up plans 1900, work completed 1903. Good, LCC Arts & Crafts style buildings making an attractive group.
Napsbury Hospital, London Colney
Historic England Archives, BF101238
Middlesex County Asylum Particularly attractive complex, designed by Rowland Plumbe in 1900 on the échelon plan with separate acute hospital and detached villas for working patients. Opened in 1905 after the other Middlesex asylums had been transferred to the LCC. The chapel has been demolished. The hospital closed in the 1990s and has been converted to housing. Opening brochure in Hertford Library with lots of photos and line drawings. Copy in file.
St Martin’s Hospital, Canterbury
Historic England Archives, BF101177
Canterbury Borough Lunatic Asylum, Stone House Asylum Erected in 1900-02 to designs by W. J. Jennings of Canterbury on a sort of mini-échelon, four two-storey pavilions only. Admin was demolished after Second World War bomb damage. Detached private patients block. Plan reproduced in Building News.
Brockhall Hospital, Billington, Lancashire
Historic England Archives, BF102619
Originally established as homes for inebriates. Designed c.1901 by Henry Littler of Preston, the County Architect.
‘Primarily, the Lancashire Inebriates Acts Board scheme provides for the erection of two separate institutions for the reception and treatment of inebriates, one for men and the other for females, and that these building shall be at a distance of some 500 yards from each other’ . 50 males and 100 females. Female side: admin flanked by six blocks of two semi-detached houses (3 on east, 3 on west of admin) each house 8 inebriates linked ot admin by covered way. Laundry. Meles side similar
1933 became ‘severed’ from Calderstoens by 1924 become Brockhall Institution for Mental deficiency. (demolished) 1931-4 extensions, Rees & Holt, architects, to become a major mental deficiency colony. Nice architect’s perspective and block plan in The Builder [5 Feb 1937, p.318]
Langho Colony, Blackburn
Historic England Archives, BF102621
The Langho Epileptic Colony was opened in 1906. The scheme was inaugurated by the Chorlton and Manchester Guardians Joint Asylums Committee. ‘A new departure by the local Poor Law Authorities’ Designed by Giles, Gough & Trollope c.1902 for 272 patients, initially in 16 buildings, separate homes with forty beds each. Medical Superintendent’s house, mortuary, receiving and hospital block, assembly hall, admin, central kitchen, stores, workshops, power house, general laundry block. 6 homes arranged in groups of three to west and east of admin.
Mary Dendy Hospital, Great Warford, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102119
Built by the Lancashire and Cheshire Society for the Permanent Care of the Feebleminded, to designs by W. G. Higginbottom. Opened in 1902.
1905 temporary school built
1906 Norbury Wyatt House built
1925 Lane Scott House built and recreation hall
Barnsley hall Hospital, Bromsgrove
Historic England Archives, BF100631
Second Worcester Lunatic Asylum G. T. Hine c. 1902 estate purchased 1899, built 1903-7, échelon plan with zig-zag bit at south end, for 254 males and 316 females, with view to extension to 1,200 total. Detached chapel quite nice. Isolation hospital nice but bashed about.
1937 admission hospital designed by A. V. Rowe, not built.
Second World War EMS hutted hospital built, demolished 1992.
Naburn Hospital, Fulford, York
Historic England Archives, BF102260 (demolished)
City of York Asylum Built 1903-6 to designs by Alfred Creer on an échelon plan for 362 patients. EMS hospital added in Second World War. Photographed just before demolition in 1990, aerials just after.
Long Grove Hospital, Epsom
Historic England Archives, BF101284
10th LCC Asylum, Building began in 1903 re-used Hine’s plan for Horton, opened 1907. Échelon and a few detached villas. Closed 1992.
Carlton Hayes Hospital, Narborough
Historic England Archives, BF100791
Leicestershire and Rutland County Asylum
1904-7 Leicester and Rutland, designed by S. P. Pick of Everard, Son and Pick of Leicester. Pauper and private patients. Sort of flat échelon plan. Ills in BN 1907. Architect’s descriptive notes, well illustrated with photos. Closed March 1995, site sold to Alliance and Leicester.
Netherne Hospital, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101294
New Surrey County Asylum Built after Surrey lost Cane Hill and Springfield Asylums to the newly created LCC and to Middlesex. G. T. Hine, échelon and dog-leg plan, foundation stone laid October 1905, opened 1909.
Warford Hall, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102121
Part of Mary Dendy Hospital, formerly Sandlebridge Boarding Schools 19th century house, lodge, outbuildings and farmhouse bought 1906 and adapted for use by young mental deficient. Ashby Hospital built 1913. Laundry 1936.
West Park Hospital, Epsom
Historic England Archives, BF101282
11th LCC asylum – the fifth of the Epsom Cluster asylums
designed by William Clifford Smith 1906-11, work began in 1912, but suspended during First World War and finally completed in 1921-4. Villa-system, supposedly based on American type, colonial style. More to it architecturally than Horton or Long Grove, though St Ebbas would probably come out tops. Which is the other one? – Manor!
Soss Moss Hospital, Warford, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102118
Prize for the silliest name. Built in 1907 as a residential school for epileptic children by Manchester Education Committee. Comprises school, headmaster’s house and four villas grouped around a green.
Monkton Hall Hospital, Jarrow
Historic England Archives, BF37536
Monkton Hall was acquired c.1907 by the North Eastern Association for the care of the Feebleminded.
Calderstones Hospital, Whalley, Lancashire
Historic England Archives, BF102620
Lancashire Asylums Board decided to establish a new asylum for epileptics and imbeciles in 1902 but progress was slow and there were arguments over the plan, villa or more traditional. Compromise-ish – end up with pavilion plan not dissimilar to Leavesden or Tooting Bec. 1907 site acquired and work commenced. Henry Littler architect Preston. 1914 almost complete, became military hospital in First World War
1921 re-opened as Calderstones Certified Institution for Mental Deficiency with 1,000 beds.
Monyhull Hospital, Birmingham
King’s Heath Epileptic Colony
1908 opened. Established by the Guardians of Birmingham parish and Aston and King’s Norton Unions for epileptics and feebleminded. Monyhull Hall acquired, erected six homes, laundry, general kitchen and cottage for head attendant. Hall used for admin and staff accommodation. 216 inmates. Plans for a recreation hall to be added. Designed by C. Whitwell & Son of Birmingham.
Severalls hospital, Colchester
Historic England Archives, BF101579
Second Essex County Asylum
1906 inviting tenders for foundations. 1910 foundation stone laid, designed by F. Whitmore, County Architect, and opened May 1913. Red brick, 22 blocks for 1,250 patients and residence for officials medical staff etc. échelon plan.
Rampton State Hospital, Nottinghamshire
?1910 F. W. Troup. Parts built c.1927 to designs by J. H. Markham, HM Office of Works.
St Mary’s Hospital, Stannington, Morpeth
Historic England Archives, BF102631
Gateshead County Borough Asylum
Designed 1910 by G. T. Hine and H Carter Pegg. Flat échelon plan. Opened 1914. 1917 taken over (by ?)
1935 extended F. H. Patterson, borough engineer, tenders
1938-9 extended (? EMS hutted annex to north)
Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill
Historic England Archives, BF101152
In 1907 offer of £30,000 to LCC to establish hospital for treatment of mental illness, which would be for early treatment of cases of acute mental disorder with a view to preventing the need to send patients to a county asylum, also to promote research and to serve as an educational establishment for medical students. Originally thought it should be for 100 patients and that about a quarter would be private patients, and should be centrally situated.
1911 site in Denmark Hill chosen and new plans commissioned from Clifford Smith. 1915 buildings just completed, handed over to Military until 1920.
1923 re-opened as mental hospital
Park Prewett Hospital, Sherborne St John Hampshire
Historic England Archives, BF100511
Second Hampshire County Asylum Initially plans were drawn up for the asylum in 1899 by G. T. Hine, but project shelved until 1909. Plans approved 1912, for 1,300 pauper patients and 100 paying patients. Comprised main asylum for 810 patients, detached reception/admissions hospital for 100 patietns, four villas for 30 convalescent patients, private patients’ block (100) – possibly not completed until 1930. Two sanatoria for TB and dysentery (each with 45 beds). Isolation hospital with six beds. Medical Superintendent’s house and other staff housing.
Before it was completed the finished buildings were taken over as No.4 Canadian Millitary Hospital. In 1921 it was transferred back to Hampshire County Council.
1927 Nurses’ Home and two additional wards designed by J. M Sheppard and partners
Standard échelon plan of later type with covered ways and slightly greater degree of detachment of patients’ blocks – semi-villa style, but less than might have expected at this date, perhaps because of long gestation of plans.
Northern View Hospital, Bradford
Three blocks, timber pre-fabs of c.1914. 1912 referred to proposed building for epileptics and imbeciles, Bradford Guardians. 1923 erecting padded room. 1931 minor additions. Aerial photographs from Health Authority, show a very attractive building.
St Margaret’s Hospital, West Midlands
Historic England Archives, BF101384
Great Barr Park Colony West Bromwich Guardians were concerned with overcrowded conditions of the mentally handicapped within their care. In 1909 Great Barr Hall came on the market and the Chairman of the Guardians suggested they acquire it. This they did in 1911. Walsall then joined West Bromwich. Initially accommodated children and mothers. Plans were drawn up in 1913 by Gerald McMichael to provide accommodation for 500 children, consumptives, mentally deficient imbeciles and epileptics. Each to be in small homes in three separate areas. The first two homes were not completed until 1921.
In 1926 Sanders Home opened for children under five (demolished).
1924 same architect asked to draw up more plans for accommodation for low grade defectives. New work ranged around the original four villas in horse-shoe shape in use by 1929.
1930 estate taken over exclusively as a training colony for the mentally handicapped.
Eleven more villas built on a site which is now male side. Opened May 1938 increased accommodation to 1,355 beds. Included new workshops and additions to Nurses’ Home and colony school
Prudhoe Hospital, Northumberland
Historic England Archives, BF102267
The Hall became Prudhoe Hall Colony in 1914 established by the Northern Counties Joint Poor Law Committee for feebleminded. Buildings designed by J. H. Morton & J. G. Burell. Six two-storey villas, a hospital, staff houses, workshops, recreation hall, kitchens, laundry and boiler house.
1930-1 taken over by Eastern County Boroughs Joint Board
1932 extension J. H. Morton & Son, two two-storey villas and one single-storey ward block, and further hospital, school staff housing new recreation hall (very nice) and kitchen.
A good example of its type.
Ashfield House, Bradford
Opened June 1917 for mentally deficient boys, claimed to be first establishment of its kind to be provided by a municipality since the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913 came into force.
Meanwood Park Hospital, Leeds
Historic England Archives, BF102020
Established 1919-20 in Meanwood Hall by Leeds Corporation. Extensions were built in 1923, and in 1925 a competition for a colony on the site was decided upon, and won in 1928 by Shepperd and H. Carter Pegg. The colony buildings were erected between 1932 and 1941.
Photographs of Meanwood Hall in red boxes. Hospital covered in The Builder, also an opening brochure. RCHME photographed the brick villas.
St Mary’s Home for Mental Deficients, Painswick
Established by 1920
Tilworth Grange Hospital, Kingston-upon-Hull
Historic England Archives, BF102095
Opened by Hull Corporation in 1921 for 50 female mental deficient. Ward block added 1928-9, and two villas built in the 1930s. Laundry added later.
Oulton Hall Hospital, Leeds
The house was taken over by West Riding County Council in 1925 for the accommodation of mental deficient. Opened 1926. Two single-storey building erected c.1930.
Sandhill Park Hospital, Bishop’s Lydeard, Somerset
Historic England Archives, BF100497
Eighteenth-century house acquired as Mental Deficiency Colony comprising three villas and a school. The estate was purchased in 1921. The colony grew out of an earlier scheme for one at Tatham Farm. George Oatley had drawn up plans for a colony there before the outbreak of the First World War, but the War placed the plans on hold. New plans from 1917-19 similarly came to nothing, and it is not known whether the utilitarian blocks erected at Sandhill Park were designed by Oatley or not. [Sarah Whittingham, Sir George Oatley: Architect of Bristol (Bristol: Redcliffe Press) 2011]
A Spider-block of EMS hutted wards was added during Second World War, c.1942. The house was boarded up in the early 1990s.
Aston Hall Hospital, Aston-upon-Trent, Derbyshire
Historic England Archives, BF61425
House seems to have been acquired by Nottingham Corporation for Mental Deficients by 1926. Four villas, stores and a recreation hall were built to the south of the house.
Bethlem Royal Hospital, Croydon
Built in 1926-30 to designs by Charles Ernest Elcock to replace the hospital at St George’s Fields in Lambeth. On the colony plan, and unusually with some Moderne touches, enhanced by white-painted render, amidst the Neo-Georgian generally insisted upon by the Board of Control. Illustrated in The Builder 1930. Chapel particularly good. Elcock also designed Runwell which repeats many of the elements here.
St Catherine’s Hospital, Doncaster
Historic England Archives, BF102145
Established by South West Yorkshire Joint Board for Mental Defectives. 1928 acquired estate of St Catherin’s at Loversall to west of town. Vincent Turner, architect, of Rotherham, drew up plans in 1930 for a colony for 640 inmates. Not all built, carried out in three stages. House became admin, villas for males (2), females (3), children (2), low grade (2), plus workshops, recreation hall, school, farm buildings and staff houses.
Warwickshire and Coleshill Hall Hospital
Birmingham Corporation Mental Hospital
Coleshill Hall was acquired by Birmingham Corporation by 1928 when advertising tenders for four villas and alts and adds to residence. H. H. Humphries, City Engineer.
Weston hospital, Leamington
Weston House was acquired about 1928 by Warwickshire Rural District Council as a colony for mental defectives. Patients’ villas were built in grounds, three on same plan, two storey U-plan, and a single sotrey one, plus assembly hall. Typical small colony.
Coldeast Hospital, Sarisbury, Fareham, Hampshire
Historic England Archives, BF100102
Mental Deficiency Colony. Coldeast House, an early nineteenth century house once owned, at different times, by Admiral Lord Hood, Quintin Hogg and the Montefiore family, was purchased by Hampshire County Council in 1925. Intended as a colony for 1,000 inmates. The house was adapted and opened in July 1928. County Architect, A. L. Roberts. 1931 first villa completed, nine more built between then and 1938, of one and two storeys. Also a school, assembly hall and mortuary. Sanatorium c.1949. Plans in Hampshire Record Office. Site plan of 1927.
St Luke’s Hospital, Woodside, London
Historic England Archives, BF101313
Founded by St Luke’s Charity which ran asylums in London until 1916-17. Built 1928-30 with proceeds from the sale of its Old Street premises, the charity adapted three villas in Woodside Avenue as a 50-bed hospital for nervous disorders. Enlarged to provide 100 beds to qualify as a teaching hospital in 1948.
Little Plumstead Hospital, Norfolk
Historic England Archives, BF100544
Little Plumstead Mental Deficiency Colony stablished in grounds of Plumstead Hall. 1928-32 G. S. Smith, County Surveyor, altered lodge, house and stables and drew up plans for new buildings including four villas, kitchen stores, laundry, water tower, medical superintendent’s house and school, designed but not all built.
1934 Edward Boardman & Son, plans for another four villas including two for low grade inmates
1937 staff houses, Boardman again
1938 colony hospital
1940 C. H. Thurston, adds
Standard and plain one-to-two storey buildings, similar to Harperbury etc. Norfolk Record Office has good photographs and plans.
Brandesburton Hospital, Humberside
Historic England Archives, BF102109
House acquired by East Riding and York Joint Board for Mental Defectives 1929. 1931 adapted hall for 181 inmates and one male pavilion was planned which opened in 1932, c.1936 three villas erected. Typical plain buildings.
Cell Barnes, St Albans
Historic England Archives, BF101237
Hertfordshire County Mental Deficiency Colony Established in 1933 with 620 beds, designed by J. M. Sheppard 1929. Plans in Hertfordshire Record Office. Typical example
Harperbury Hospital, St Albans
Historic England Archives, BF101240
Middlesex Colony for Mental Defectives Work began in 1929 and continued until 1936 to designs by the County Architect W. T. Curtis. Provided accommodation for 1,154 inmates. Covered in The Builder when it opened. Another typical example of this type.
Leicester Frith Hospital
Historic England Archives, BF100818
Leicester Frith Institution, Glenfrith Hospital
Mental Deficiency Institution. Tenders accepted in 1929. Formerly seems to have been Leicester Frith Home of Rest, possibly a private house, c.1870. Appears on 1928 map as Leicester Frith Institution for female defectives. Wing added to west. 1930s buildings. Good aerials, house looks nice but mental deficiency villas as dull as ditchwater.
Turner Village Hospital, Colchester
Historic England Archives, BF101578
Royal Eastern Counties’ Institution Extension
Designed by John Stuart, Essex County Architect 1929. First section opened in 1938. Plans in Essex Record Office 1929 and 1934. Covered in The Builder. Not visited.
Shenley Hospital, Hertfordshire
Historic England Archives, BF101239
Middlesex County Hospital and Colony, Designed in 1930 by W. T. Curtis, County Architect, for 2,000 patients. Built in two phases, first completed 1934, second underway by 1937. Block plan and perspective from The Builder. Attractive site.
Dovenby Hall Hospital, Bridekirk, Cumbria
Historic England Archives, BF102292
House acquired by Cumberland, Westmoreland and Carlisle Joint Board 1930-1 house altered and two villas built to designs by J. H. Morton & Sons, further villas added later, plus recreation hall and school.
Tatchbury Mount Hospital, Netley Marsh, Hampshire
Historic England Archives, BF100408
Mental Deficiency Colony established by 1931 by Hampshire Joint Hospitals Committee. Three villas and temporary hospital built 1939, J. M. Sheppard. By 1941 additional single storey buildings. Standard stuff, brick, hip roofs, windows close under eaves, very plain and utilitarian. By early 1990s stables of house and house itself boarded up.
Bromham Hospital, Bedfordshire (demolished)
Historic England Archives, BF100299
Bromham Colony for Mental Defectives. Bromham House, of 1897, was acquired by the Joint Board of Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire County Councils and Northampton County Borough Council in 1932. Six two-storey villas etc built in grounds, house became admin. Villas, four of same design, one with foundation stone 11 May 1936, two storey H-plan, some single storey also. Additions were made in 1956, with two single-storey villas (one male one female) and one two-storey villa (for male patients). These continued the Neo-Georgian style, in brick with hipped slate roofs. The main architect in charge of the additions was D. D. Andrews, the Regional Architect. The hospital closed in 1997 and the site subsequently redeveloped for housing. Bromham House and gate lodge were retained, but all the hospital buildings have been demolished. [The Hospital, May 1956 pp 253-8: also see history of the hospital by Bedford Borough Council]
Winestead Hall Hospital, Patrington, Humberside
Historic England Archives, BF102100
Established by Hull Corporation between 1936 and 1939 for male mental defectives. 1932 bought estate. 1933 City Archtiect, D. Harvey, designed two villas, admin, school and recreation buildings, ended up with four 40-bed pavilions. Opened 1939.
Cranage Hall Hospital, Cheshire
Historic England Archives, BF102135
The Hall and estate were acquired by Cheshire County Council in 1932. The Hall became the admin offices. 1932-8 seven standard villas, mostly of two storeys, school and workshops added. Photographed by RCHME.
South Ockendon Hospital, Thurrock, Essex
Historic England Archives, BF101370
West Ham and Poplar Colony for Mental Defectives
Borocourt Hospital, Oxfordshire
A nineteenth-century house in large grounds, with four two-storey villas near by, two on each side of the house, of standard type for a mental deficiency colony. Previously this had been a sanatorium: Maitland Cottage Sanatorium, founded around the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century for six patients. This had been increased to seventy by 1913 and it became an annex of Kingswood Sanatorium for working class patients. Seems to have become the Berks and Bucks Joint Sanatorium before being taken over by the Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Reading Joint Board as a mental deficiency institution in the 30s. A scheme for a colony was proposed by the Board in 1930, approved in 1931 and tenders invited in 1932. W. K. Howell, architect. Closed by the early 1990s.
Runwell Hospital, Essex
Historic England Archives, BF101247
East Ham and Southend Mental Hospital
Designed in 1933 by Elcock & Sutcliffe. It attempted to embody the ideals of the 1930 Mental Treatment Act, and the plans were drawn up in close collaboration with the Board of Control. There was a new emphasis on remedial treatment of mental disorders. Elcock visited mental hospital in Britain, on the Continent and in the United States. The foundation stone was laid 20 June 1934, brochure in my drawer in the office. Designed for 1,032 patients in villas or pavilions of one or two storeys. Perhaps the last hurrah of mental hospital design in England, indeed it was the last big municipal psychiatric hospital, and one of the few built after the First World War as most of the new institutions were for the so-called mentally deficient.
Bristol Mental Hospital
Barrow Hospital. Designed by Sir George Oatley, architect. Plans approved 1934, the first patients admitted in 1938 and the hospital officially opened in 1939, though never completed due to the outbreak of the Second World War and so of the proposed 1,150 beds it only accommodated 375 patients. [Sarah Whittingham, Sir George Oatley: Architect of Bristol 2011] It was designed on a colony plan, and like Runwell was a mental hospital, not a mental deficiency colony. During the War it became a Royal Navy Auxiliary Hospital.
Botleys Park Colony, Chertsey, Surrey
Historic England Archives, BF101380
Established by Surrey County Council and designed c.1934 by J. M. Sheppard & Partners for mental defectives. Tenders advertised 1935, plans at hospital dated 34-5. Covered in The Builder in 1939 when completed, including a block site plan. (seem to remember EMS spider blocks on site)
Stoke Park Hospital, Bristol
Historic England Archives, BF101574
Stoke Park Colony Interwar colony, c.1935 – The Incorporation of National Institutions for Persons Requiring Care and Control.
1947-8 George Oatley, sketch scheme for development
1949-50 recreation hall, George Oatley
Leybourne Grange Colony, Kent
Historic England Archives, BF101223
Kent County Council, W. H. Robinson architect. Tenders for buildings 1935, hospital block, two pavilions, workshops recreation hall.
Lathom Park Hospital, Ormskirk, Lancashire
Proposed, but never built. A competition was held for the design in 1936-7 judged by Elcock, Kirkland and Abercrombie, won by J. M. Sheppard & Partners. [photo of the architects in The Builder, 14 May 1937 p.1041] It was to be built on a 600-acre, wooded site, part of Lathom park estate near Ormskirk. The hospital was to comprise a mental hospital for 1,000 patients and an institution for 2,000 mental defectives. The conditions of the competition suggested south of site for the hospital, and buildings had to conform with the suggestions and instructions relating to mental hospitals published in 1933. Accommodation required for the mental hospital included an admissions hospital, convalescent villas, four villas for special cases, a sick hospital, villas for working patients, closed united for excited cases, single storey wards, epileptic wards and ‘undefined’ wards. Also admin block, recreation hall, workrooms, three large shops, sports ground, general stores, canteen, nurse’ home, Medical Officers residences, and accommodation for clerk, steward, and engineers, and a church. For the mental deficiency colony villas for adults, 50-60 in each, classified as epileptics, troublesome, and low grade, also for children, homes with 50 and 40, also termed low grade, and a hospital.
Aycliffe Hospital, Heighington, Durham
Historic England Archives, BF102196
Established by Durham County Council c.1936 intended for 300 patients. Rees & Holt architects, six two-storey and two single storey villas, workshops, service buildings, and school. Admin after 1948.
Northgate Hospital, Hebron, Northumberland
Historic England Archives, BF102302
Opened by Northumberland County Council in 1938 as a mental deficiency colony for 300 patients. Original buildings included admin, five villas, dining hall, recreation hall, staff houses and service buildings. Standard fare.
Crooked Acres Hospital, Leeds
Historic England Archives, BF102026
Victorian villa taken over as an annex to Meanwood Park Colony in 1938
Lea Castle Hospital, Wolverley and Cookley, Hereford & Worcestershire
Historic England Archives, BF100658
Established c.1940 for the mentally subnormal.
Rykneld Hospital, Derby
A private house of c.1806 rebuilt by Josias Cocksutt a Yorkshire ironmaster. Wyatt possibly involved somewhere. After the Second World War it became a home for mentally defective women, c.1945.