Asylums in the United Kingdom in 1898

The following is a list of establishments in the UK in 1898 that admitted patients suffering from mental illnesses or with learning difficulties. It is taken from Henry Burdett’s Hospitals and Charities Yearbook 1899 and gives the names under which the hospitals were known at that time. In many instances Burdett gave the year in which the hospitals were established. In the volume he provided information on the staff and costs, omitted here.

The list covers England, then Scotland, Wales, Ireland ending with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.

Admissions to County and Borough Asylums was usually obtained through relieving officers. Paying patients were frequently admitted when there was room. A charge was made to the various poor-law unions for the reception of pauper cases, which varied from one asylum to another.


Public Asylums

Beds, Herts and Hunts Asylum (the Three counties Asylum), established 1860, at Arlesey, near Hitchin. Capacity 1,090 inmates.
Berkshire County Asylum, Moulsford, established 1870, capacity 613
Birmingham City Asylum, Winson Green, established 1850, capacity 624
Birmingham City Asylum, Rubery Hill, Barnt Green, established 1882, capacity 835
Bristol City and County Lunatic Asylum Fishponds, Bristol, established 1861, capacity 791
Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Crowthorne, Berkshire, established 1863, capacity 665
Buckingham County Asylum, Stone, Aylesbury, established 1853, capacity 480
Isle of Ely and Borough of Cambridge Asylum, Fulbourn, near Cambridge. Established 1858, capacity 545
Cheshire County Asylum, Parkside near Macclesfiled, founded 1871, capacity 744
Cheshire County Lunatic Asylum, Upton, near Chester established 1829, capacity 1,035
Eastern Counties Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles, Colchester, established 1859, capacity 250. There was a sickness and benefit club associated with the asylum, and a seaside branch for 20 patients at Crossley House, Clacton-on-Sea.
Cornwall County Asylum, Bodmin, established 1820, capacity 750
Cumberland and Westmoreland Counties Asylum, Garlands, near Carlisle, established 1862, capacity 640
Derby Borough Asylum, Rowditch, established 1888, capacity 320
Derby County Asylum, Mickleovre, established 1851, capacity 609
Devon County Asylum, Exminster, near Exeter, established 1845, capacity 1,092
Dorset County Asylum, Dorchester, established 1832, capacity 720
Durham County Asylum, Winterton, Ferryhill, established 1858, capacity 1,504
Earlswood Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles, Redhill, Surrey Instituted 1847 capacity 700
Essex County Asylum, Brentwood founded 1853, capacity 1,495
Exeter City Asylum, Digby, Heavitree, established 1886, capacity 377
Western Counties Idiot Asylum, Exeter, Starcross established 1864, capacity 250
Wonford House Hospital for the Insane, Exeter, established 1800, capacity 150
Barnwood House Hospital for the Insane, Gloucester, established 1860 capacity 160
Gloucester County Asylums, Wotton and Barnwood, established 1823, capacity 1,070
Hampshire County Asylum, Knowle, Fareham, established 1852, capacity 1,061
Hereford County and City Lunatic Asylum, Burghill, established 1871, capacity 400
Hull City and County Asylum, Willerby, near Hull, established 1849, capacity 560
Ipswich Borough Asylum, established 1870, capacity 316
Kent County Asylum, Barming Heath, Maidstone, opened 1833, capacity 1,577
Kent County Asylum, Chartham Downs, near Canterbury, established 1875, capacity, 1,205
Midland Counties Idiot Asylum, Knowle, Birmingham, founded Jan 1 1868, capacity 86
Lancashire County Asylum, Lancaster, established 1816, capacity 2,100
Lancashire County Asylum, Prestwich, near Manchester, established 1851, capacity 2,650
Lancashire County Asylum, Rainhill, established 1851, enlarged 1887, capacity 2,100
Royal Albert Asylum for Idiots and Imbeciles of the Northern Counties, Lancaster, established 1864, capacity 600
Leicester Borough Asylum, Humberstone established 1869, capacity 551
Leicestershire and Rutland Asylum, Victoria Road, Leicester, established 1837, capacity 480
Lincoln County Asylum, Bracebridge, near Lincoln, established 1852, capacity 680
The Lawn Hospital for the Insane, Lincoln, established 1820, capacity 90
Bethlem Royal Hospital, Lambeth Road, London, founded 1546, capacity 300
City of London Asylum, Dartford, Kent, established 1866, capacity 470
London County Asylum, Hanwell, established 1831, capacity 2,400
London County Asylum, Banstead Downs, near Sutton Sureey, established 1877, capacity 2,540
London County Asylum, Cane Hill, Purley, Surrey, established 1883, capacity 2,078
London County Asylum, Claybury, Woodford Bridge, Essex, commenced 1886, opened 16 May 1893, capacity 2,443, with a branch (The Hall, Claybury) for 50 paying male patients.
Metropolitan Asylums Board, Caterham Asylum, Surrey, established 1870 for adult imbeciles, capacity 2,045
Metropolitan Asylums Board, Leavesden Asylum, near Watford, Hertfordshire, established October 1870 for adult imbeciles, capacity 2,000
Metropolitan Asylums Board, Darenth Asylum, near Dartford, Kent, established 1880, for adult imbeciles, capacity 1,052, also Darenth Schools, established 1878 for imbecile children, capacity 1,000
St Luke’s Hospital for Lunatics, Old Street, London established 1751, capacity 200
Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum, Cheadle, founded 1849, capacity 300
Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum, Wandsworth, established 1841, capacity 1,413 – this ought, I think, to be the Surrey County Asylum, at Springfield, Wandsworth
Royal Military Lunatic Hospital, Netley, Hampshire, founded 1870 capacity 1,077
Newcastle-upon-Tyne City Asylum, Gosforth, established 1869, capacity 503
Norfolk County Asylum, Thorpe, established 1814, capacity 850
Northampton County Asylum, Berry Wood, near Northampton, established 1876, enlarged 1882, capacity 941. Also has a block for education and treatment of idiot children. Asylum ‘conducted almost on the open-door system’
St Andrew’s Hospital for Mental Diseases, Northampton, established 1838, capacity 350
Northumberland County Lunatic Asylum, Cottingwood, Morpeth, established 1859, capacity 615
Bethel Hospital for the Insane, Bethel Street, Norwich, established 1713, capacity 88
Norwich City Asylum, Hellesdon, Established June 1880, capacity 315
Nottingham Borough Asylum, Mapperley Hill, established 1880, capacity 585
Nottingham County Asylum, Snenton {sic}, Nottingham, established 1812, capacity 370
Nottingham Lunatic Hospital, The coppice, near Nottingham, established 1789, capacity 104
Oxford County Asylum, Littlemore, established 1846, capacity 553
Warneford Asylum, Oxford established 1826, capacity 100
Plymouth Borough Asylum, Glackadon, Ivybridge, established 1891, capacity 275
Portsmouth Borough Asylum, Milton, established 1879, capacity 600
Salop and Montgomery Counties and Wenlock Borough Asylum, Bicton, Shrewsbury, established 1843, capacity 854
Somerset and Bath Asylum, Wells, established 1848, capacity 850
Coton Hill hospital for the Insane, Stafford, founded 1854, capacity 160
Staffordshire County Asylum, Stafford, established 1818, capacity 872
Staffordshire County Asylum, Burntwood, Lichfield, established 1864, capacity 864
Suffolk County Asylum, Melton, Suffok, established 1829, capacity 600
Surrey County Asylum, Brookwood, ner Woking, established 1867, capacity 1,050
Sussex County Asylum, Hayward’s heath, established 1859, capacity 876
Sussex County Asylum, Chichester, opened July 1897 capacity not given.
Holloway Sanatorium Hospital for the Insane, St Ann’s Heath, Virginia Water, established 1884, capacity 410. Branch Establishment at Brighton, with accommodation for 40 patients and some cottage homes.
Warwickshire County Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Hatton, established 1852, capacity 1,047
Wiltshire County Asylum, Devizes, established 1851, capacity 765
Worcester County and City Lunatic Asylum, Powick, established 11 August 1852, capacity 1,200
Royal Naval Hospital, Yarmouth, founded 1809, capacity 227, for insane officers and men of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines.
East Riding Asylum, Beverley, established 1871, capacity 480
The Retreat, York, established 1792, capacity 160, founded and managed by members of the Society of Friends
York Lunatic Hospital, Bootham, York, established 1774, capacity 160. There was an invested fund, the income from which was applied in part payment of the board of poor patients.
North Riding Asylum, Clifton, established 1847, capacity 709
West Riding Asylum, Wakefield, founded 1819, capacity 1,428
West Riding Asylum, Wadsley, Sheffield, established 1872, capacity 1,610
West Riding Asylum, Menston, near Leeds, established 1888, capacity 1,540

The York Emanuel, founded 1782, this was a society for granting pensions up to £20 a year for the benefit of ministers, their wives and children, in any part of the UK laboring under the misfortune of blindness or idiocy

After-care Association for Poor Persons Discharged Recovered from Asylums for the Insane, offices at Church House, Dean’s Yard, Westminster, London
Set up to facilitate the readmission of poor convalescents from lunatic asylums into social life by obtaining for them an interval of change of scene and air, offering grants of money and clothing and helping them to find employment.

Association of Asylum Workers, founded in 1894 to improve the status of asylum nurses and attendants and provide a ‘home of Rest and Nursing’ for those engaged in asylum work. However, the home had not yet been established due to want of funds. The Association produced a monthly journal, Asylum News

London School Board Centres for Instruction of Physically or Mentally Defective Children.
The London School Board had established special classes (called ‘Schools for Special Instruction”) for those children who by reason of physical or mental defects cannot be properly taught in the ordinary standards or by the ordinary methods. Children had to be nominated by head teachers of elementary schools and examined by the Board’s medical officer and the Superintendent of the Schools for Special Instruction. In 1898 there were 1,597 children on the roll. The following centres had been established:

Chelsea District: Ackmar Road, Parsons Green; Kingwood Road, Fulham; 108 Lancaster Rd, Notting Hill; Langord Road, Fulham; Park Walk, Chelsea; St Clement’s Road, Notting Hill; St Dunstan’s Rd, Hammersmith
Finsbury District: Bath St, City Rd; Ecclesbourne Rd, Islington; Hugh Myddelton School, Clerkenwell; 44 Barnett’s Grove, Stoke Newington
Greenwich District: Edward St, Deptford; Kender St, Hatcham;
Hackney: Abbey St, Bethnal Green; Cranbrook Rd, Bethnal Green; Eton Mission, Hackney Wick; Maidstone St, Haggerston; Newcastle St, Bethnal Green
Lambeth East: Boundary Lane, Camberwell; Choumert Rd, Peckham; Sayer St, Walworth
Lambeth West: Priory Grove, Wandsworth; Shillington Street, Battersea; Warple Way, Wandsworth
Marylebone District: ‘Brecknock’ Camden Square; Brondesbury Hall, Iverson Rd;  Camden Hall, Camden Town; Capland St, Lisson Grove (junior); “The Maberly”, Harrow Rd, Paddington
Southwark:  Galleywall Rd, Bermondsey; Kipling St, Bermondsey; Pocock St, Blackfriars
Tower Hamlets: British St, Millwall; Chrisp St, Poplar; Deal St, Mile End, New Town; Old Ford Rd, Bow; Portman Place, Globe Rd; St James, Ratcliff; Trafalgar Sq, Stepney

Private Asylums and Licensed Houses


Bethnal House, Cambridge Road, 300 patients private and pauper of both sexes
Grove Hall, Fairfield Rd, Bow, 440 patients, ditto
Camberwell House, Camberwell, 489 ditto
Hoxton House, Hoxton, 280 ditto
Peckham House, Peckham, 375 ditto
Chiswick House, Chiswick, 35 patients, private patients only, both sexes
Brooke House, Upper Clapton, 88 ditto
Northumberland House, Finsbury Park, 95 ditto
Wyke House, Isleworth, 45 ditto
The Priory, Roehampton 90 ditto
Halliford House, Sunbury, 30 ditto
Moorcroft House, Hillingdon, Uxbridge, 48 private male patients only
Flower House, South End, Catford, 32 ditto
Newlands House, Tooting Beck Road, Tooting Common, 28 ditto
The Grange, East Finchley, 8 private female patients only
Peterborough House, Fulham, 30 ditto
Otto House, North End, Hammersmith 35 ditto
Hayes Park, Hayes, Uxbridge, 19 ditto
Wood End House, Hayes, Uxbridge 19 ditto
Hendon Grove, Hendon, 14 ditto
Featherstone Hall, Southall 10 ditto
Vine Cottage, Norwood Green, Southall, 14 ditto – quiet and harmless cases only
The Huguenots, East Hill, Wandsworth 12 ditto, ditto
Normansfield, Hampton Wick, 160 patients of both sexes, idiots etc.


(Houses taking private patients only, unless otherwise stated)
Bishopstone House, Bedford, 10 females
Springfield House, Bedford 48, both sexes
Wye House, Buxton, 44 both sexes
Court Hall, Kenton, Exeter, 8 females
Plympton House, Plympton, Devon 44 both sexes
Dinsdale Park, Darlington, 44 both sexes, quiet and harmless only
Dunston Lodge, Gateshead, 65 both sexes
Witham, Essex, 25, both sexes
Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol 50, both sexes
Fairford House, Fairford, Gloucestershire, 50 both sexes
Westbrook House, Alton, Hampshire, 30 both sexes
The Briars, Sandown, Isle of Wight, 5 females
Harpenden Hall, St Albans, Herts 13 females
Redlands, Hadlow, Tundbridge, Kent 25 both sexes
Tattlebury House, Goudhurst, Kent 8 both sexes
West Malling Place, Maidstone, Kent, 39 both sexes
Marsden Hall, Nelson, Lancs, 28 both sexes
Overdale, Outwood, Whitefield, Manchester 14 both sexes
Haydock Lodge, Ashton, Newton-le-Willows, Lancs 150 both sexes including paupers
Tue Brook Villa, Liverpool 52 both sexes
Shaftesbury House, Formby, Preston, Lancs 40 both sexes
Heigham Hall, Norwich 95, both sexes
The Grove, Catton, Norwich 21 both sexes (though only one male patient)
Stretton House, Church Stretton, Shropshire, 40 males patients only
St Mary’s House, Whitchurch, Shropshire 6 females only
Boreatton Park, Baschurch, near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, 30 both sexes
Brislington House, Bristol, Somerset 106 both sexes
Bailbrook House, Bath Easton, Somerset 44 both sexes
Ashwood House, Kingswinford, Dudley, Staffs 31 both sexes
Moat House, Tamworth, Staffs 16 females only
Church Street, Epsom, Surrey 14 females only
Chalk Pit House, Sutton, Surrey, 3 females only, quite and harmless only
Ticehurst Asylum, Sussex 92, both sexes
St George’s Retreat, Burgess Hill, Sussex, 75 both sexes
Periteau House, Winchelsea, Rye, S. O. Sussex 5 females only
Ashbrook Hall, Hollington, Sussex, 6 females, quite and harmless only
Glendossil and Hurst House Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire, 48 both sexes
Laverstock house, Salisbury, Wilts, 70 both sexes
Fisherton House, Salisbury, Wilts, 672 both sexes, paupers accepted
Fiddington House, Market Lavington, Devizes, Wilts 30 both sexes
Kingsdown House, Box, Wilts, 43 both sexes
Craven Street, Retreat, Sculcoates, Hull, East Riding, Yorkshire 11 females, quiet and harmless only
Greta Bank, Burton-in-Lonsdale, Kirkby Lonsdale, West Riding, Yorkshire 10 females, quite and harmless only
The Grange, Kimberworth, Rotherham, West Riding, Yorkshire 20 females only
Lawrence House York 22 both sexes

Idiot Establishments registered under the Idiots Act, 1886

Downside Lodge, Chilcompton, Bath, Somerset 7 females only


Public Asylums

Carmarthen, Cardigan and Pembroke County Asylum. Carmarthen, established 1865, capacity 610
Denbigh, Anglesey, Carnarvon, Flint and Merioneth Lunatic Asylum, Denbigh, established 1848, capacity 508
Glamorgan County Lunatic Asylum, Bridgend, established 1864, capacity 1,641
Monmouthshire Asylum, Abergavenny, established 1851, capacity 1,077

see also Salop and Montgomery Counties Asylum in Shropshire, above


Public Asylums

Aberdeen Royal Lunatic Asylum, established 1800, capacity 720
Argyll and Bute District Lunatic Asylum, Lochgilphead, established 1863, capacity 450
Ayr District Asylum, Ayr, established 1869, capacity 453
Baldovan Asylum for Imbecile Children, near Dundee, established 1853, capacity 70
Banff District Asylum, Ladysbridge and Woodpark, founded 1864, capacity 150
Crichton Royal Institution, Dumfries, incorporated by Act of Parliament, 3 July 1840, capacity 800
Dundee Royal Lunatic Asylum, established 1812, new building 1880, capacity 500
Edinburgh Royal Asylum, Morningside and Craig House founded 1813, capacity 870
Elgin District Asylum, Elgin, founded 1832, capacity 212
Fife and Kinross District Asylum, Cupar, Fife, founded 1866, capacity 516
Gartloch Asylum and Hospital for the Insane, Gartloch, established 1896, capacity asylum 400, hospital 140
Glasgow District Asylum, Woodilee, Lenzie, founded 1875, capacity 850
Kirklands Asylum, Bothwell, founded 1881 for patients from Glasgow, capacity 202
Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, founded 1814, capacity 460
Govan District Asylum, Hawkhead, Paisley, opened September 1895, capacity 500
Govan Parochial Asylum, Merryflats, Govan founded 1873, capacity 170
Greenock Parochial Asylum, Smithston, founded 1879, capacity 290
Haddington District Asylum, established 1866, capacity 150
Inverness District Asylum, founded 1864, capacity 540
Lanark District Asylum, Hartwood, Shotts, opened in 1895, capacity 900
Scottish National Institution for the Education of Imbecile Children, Larbert, Stirlingshire, established 1862, capacity 270
Midlothian and Peebles District Asylum, Roslin Caslte, founded 1874, capacity 243
Montrose Royal Lunatic Asylum, Sunnyside, founded 1782, capacity 650
Paisley Poorhouse and Asylum, Craw Road, poorhouse founded 1849, asylum 1851 and hospital 1890, capacity 98
Paisley Burgh Parochial Asylum, Riccartsbar, paisley, founded 1876, cpapcity 203
Perth District Asylum, Murthly, founded 1864, capacity 366
Murray Royal Asylum, Perth founded 1827, capacity 140, receives no paupers, local patients granted charitable aid. Succursal houses at Kincarrathie and Elie.
Roxburgh, Berwick and Selkirk District Asylum, Melrose, founded 1872, capacity 289
Stirling District Asylum, Larbert, established 1869, capacity 700

Private Asylums

(None of these accepted pauper patients)

Saughton Hall, Gorgie, 25 males, 41 females
Whitehouse, Inveresk, 4 males 7 females
Westermains, Kirkintilloch 2 males 14 females
Mollendo House, Musselburgh 2 males 5 females
Mavisbank, Polton 18 males, 24 females

Poorhouses with Retricted Licenses

Aberdeen East Poorhouse, 36 males, 46 females
Aberdeen West Poorhouse, 28 m, 28 f
Old Monkland Poorhouse, Coatbridge 25m, 24 f
Dumbarton Poorhouse, Dumbarton, 24 m, 31 f
Dundee East Poorhouse, 43 m, 56 f
Dundee West Poorhouse, 40 m, 36 f
Edinburgh Poorhouse, 72 m, 72 f
Hamilton Poorhouse, 15 m, 14 f
Inveresk Poorhouse, 15 m, 14 f
Cunninghame Poorhouse, Irvine 48 m, 48 f
Linlithgow Poorhouse, 16 m, 16 f
Buchan Poorhouse, New Maud, 26 m, 26 f
Perth Poorhouse, 20 m, 20 f
Kincardine Poorhouse, Stonehaven 21 m, 21 f
Wigtown Poorhouse, Stranraer, 18 m, 15 f


Public Asylums

Antrim District Lunatic Asylum, Antrim, established 1898, capacity 400
Armagh District Asylum, Armagh, established 1824, capacity 304
Ballinasloe District Asylum, Galway established 1834, capacity 840
Belfast District Asylum, established 1829, capacity 656
Carlow District Asylum, established 1831, capacity 380
Castlebar District Asylum, Mayo, established 1866, capacity 491
Clonmel District Lunatic Asylum Clonmel, established 1833, capacity 640
Cork District Lunatic Asylum, established 1852, capacity 1,200
Down District Asylum, Downpatrick, established 1869, capacity 624
Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Dundrum County Dublin, opened 1850, capacity 176
Ennis District Asylum, Clare, established 1868, capacity 380
Enniscorthy District Asylum, Wexford, established 1868, capacity 448
Kilkenny District Asylum, established 1852, capacity 420
Donegal District Lunatic Asylum, Letterkenny, established 1866, capacity 520
Limerick District Asylum, established 1825, capacity 500
Londonderry District Lunatic Asylum, Derry, established 1829, capacity 344
Maryborough District Asylum, established 1832, capacity 400
Monaghan District Asylum, established 1869, capacity 654
Mullingar District Asylum, established 1855, capacity 662
Omagh District Asylum, founded 1852, capacity 632
Richmond District Asylum, Dublin established 1814, capacity 1,100
Sligo District Lunatic Asylum, established 1855, capacity 470
Waterford District Lunatic Asylum, established 1834, capacity 500

Private Asylums

Armagh Retreat, licensed for 21 males and 15 female patients
Glenside, Ballysillan, Belfast 5 males
Verville, Clontarf Green Lanes Co Dublin 30 females
Lindville, Blackrock Rd, Cork 10 males 16 females
Bloomfield, Donnybrook, Co. Dublin, inmates in Dec 1897: 16 males and 19 females
Hartfield House, Drumcondra, Co. Dublin licensed for 26 male patients
Highfield House, ditto, licensed for 22 females
St Patrick’s Hospital, James St, Dublin inmates in Dec 1897, 40 males 65 females
Elm Lawn, Dundrum, Co. Dublin, licenses for 10 females
St Vincent’s Fairview, Co. Dublin, 107 female inmates Dec 1897
Farnham House and Maryville, Finglas, Co. Dublin licensed for 30 males, and 26 females
Hampstead House, Glasnevin, Co. Dublin, licensed for 26 male patients
Stewart Institution, Palmerston, Co. Dublin, 69 male and 65 female inmates in Dec 1897
Woodbine Lodge, Rathfarnham, Co. Dublin licensed for 10 females
Course Lodge, Rich Hill, Co. Armagh licensed for 15 females
St John of God, Stillorgan, Co.Dublin licensed for 95 males
Belmont park, Waterford licensed for 42 males


Public Asylums

Guernsey: St Peter Port Asylum, established 1832, capacity 32
Isle of Man, General Lunatic Asylum, Union Mills, established 1866, capacity 233
Jersey Asylum, established 1868, capacity 185