Margate’s Sea Bathing Hospital

Royal Sea Bathing Hospital, Margate. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

Earlier this year I spent a wonderful weekend in Margate and was fortunate to be staying just around the corner from the former Sea Bathing Hospital. This was a building that I first visited in September 1991. Since then it has been transformed into a gated private housing development, with some very swanky newly built ‘beach huts’ overlooking the bay.

The new ‘beach huts’ at the former Royal Sea Bathing Hospital, Margate. Built in 2016 for the developers, Harriss Property Limited, to designs by Guy Hollaway Architects. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

Back in the early 1990s the future of the hospital was uncertain. Remaining services were then scheduled to move to a new building on the Thanet District General Hospital site. Ten years later the buildings were in a sorry state. In 2001 a planning application was submitted to convert the historic core into luxury apartments.

Extract from the 25-inch OS map revised in 1936. Reproduced by permission of the National Library of Scotland

What makes the hospital so special is its long history – it claims to be the earliest specialist orthopaedic hospital in Britain if not the world, and was a pioneer in the use of open-air treatment for patients with non-pulmonary tuberculosis. Founded in 1791 by John Coakley Lettsom, the first building went up in 1793-6 to designs by the Reverend John Pridden. Lettsom was a Quaker physician who espoused the benefits of treating disease with sunshine, fresh air and sea bathing.

John Coakley Lettsom (1744-1815),  with his family in the garden of his house in Grove Hill, Camberwell, Surrey. Oil painting by an unknown English artist, c.1786. Wellcome Library

The idea that sea bathing had health benefits was not new. A Dr Wittie promoted sea bathing as a cure as early as 1660 in Scarborough. By the mid-eighteenth century sea bathing for health had become widely popular. The small fishing village of Brighthelmstone  grew into the resort of Brighton on the strength of the perceived healthiness of its especially salty sea as well as through the patronage of the future George IV. Just about any illness was claimed to be curable by the application of sea water – externally or internally, but glandular and respiratory complaints were thought to be particularly likely to benefit from such treatment.

Mermaids at Brighton by William Heath of c.1829 (public domain image via Wikimedia Commons)

John Coakley Lettsom firmly believed in the efficacy of sea air and sea bathing for the treatment of scrofula (also known as the king’s evil, this skin disease is caused by a form of tuberculosis). Lettsom’s idea to found an infirmary at Margate for the poor was given royal patronage almost from the start, so his intention in July 1791 to found the ‘Margate Infirmary for the Relief of the Poor whose Diseases require Sea-Bathing’ soon changed to the ‘Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary’.

This early print shows the main elevation as designed by Pridden and is dated 1793. Reproduced under Creative Commons Licence CC BY 4.0 via Wellcome Collection

Margate, on the north-east coast of Kent, offered sheltered conditions and a moderate climate. It was within easy reach of London by boat. The site was outside the town in Westbrook, a tiny hamlet that remained largely undeveloped until after the First World War. The new building was designed with access to fresh air in mind, with open arcades and verandas. Its clerical architect, the Reverend John Pridden, was an enthusiastic supporter of Lettsom. He was both an antiquary and an amateur architect – not an especially unusual combination of interests in Georgian Britain.

Floor plans and elevation of the infirmary by Darton & Harvey. Wellcome Collection Creative Commons Licence CC BY 4.0

His first design was drawn up as early as June 1791 for a hospital large enough for 92 patients. In the end this proved too ambitious and was simplified to provide for 30 patients. With the plans approved, building work began some time after May 1793 and it was ready by the spring of 1796. Though much altered, Pridden’s building survives at the heart of the present complex.

West façade of the infirmary. Photographed in September 1991 © H. Richardson

Pridden’s design prefigured open-air sanatoria of the early twentieth century, with wards opening out on to colonnades, or piazzas as he called them, so that beds could be pushed out into the open air. There were wards with nine or six beds on either side of a two-storey block containing offices and staff accommodation.

Detail from the OS Town Plan of 1874

The Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary was a charitable institution, funded by subscriptions and donations. Patients were admitted on the recommendation of the governors after examination by a medical board in London. Out-patients as well as in-patients were treated.

Sea Bathing Machine at Margate. Wellcome Collection Creative Commons Licence CC BY 4.0

The sea-bathing element of the treatment was administered under the supervision of bath nurses, who escorted patients down to the shore in the hospital’s own bathing machine in order for them to be fully immersed in the water. In addition to this stimulation, the fresh air and decent food provided were of great benefit.

View of the infirmary from the Nurses’ Home, photographed in 1991. This shows how close the sea is to the hospital. On the left can be glimpsed the flat roof of the 1880s extension

Until the 1850s the infirmary was only open during the summer. In 1853 indoor salt water baths were introduced. A horse-driven pump forced sea water up from the shore 30 ft below. This facility allowed the hospital to remain open all year round. By then the hospital had expanded, with a new single-storey wing added to the south in 1816 that increased the capacity to 90 beds. Another wing, this time of two storeys, had been added by about 1840 facing north. The extended infirmary was subsequently altered and further extended to give it a more coherent appearance with Greek Revival dressings. It was raised to two storeys throughout, and the west-facing entrance front given a tetrastyle Doric portico (the columns supposedly came for nearby Holland House). The portico was later moved to its present position on the south front.

The new wing added to the west of the hospital in the 1880s. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

Wards for children were added in 1857-8. A large dining hall and a school were also added, connected to the main building by a covered way, and a house for the Governor. More substantial additions were made in the 1880s.

The view from the roof terrace, looking west over the bay towards Westbrook. Photographed in 1991 © H. Richardson

James Knowles Junior produced the designs for a long, single-storey building adjoining the old hospital to the west – hence the re-siting of the portico.

Detail of the ground plan from H. C. Burdett’s Hospitals and Asylums of the World, Portfolio of Plans, 1893, showing the southern end of the new wing.

Funds for the extension were donated by Sir Erasmus Wilson, a director of the hospital who had a house at Westgate just up the coast. He gave £30,000 to build more wards, a heated indoor swimming pool and a chapel. The statue in front of the main entrance is of Wilson, erected in his honour in 1896.

The south front of the former Sea Bathing Infirmary with statue of Sir Erasmus Wilson in the foreground. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

A description of the new ward block noted:

The general wards, which are provided with hot and cold sea-water baths, are utilised largely for “dressing” the tubercular joints and glands, and for sleeping accommodation during unusually inclement weather. For the most part, however, the patients remain both by day and night on the verandah surrounding the “quadrangle”. In this position the patients while in their beds are able to enjoy the sea air both by day and night, while those who are able to move about secure exercise in the grounds and, in suitable cases, sea-bathing on the beach. [PP 1907, XXVII, 406-7]

The ward block also had a flat roof, creating a promenade, protected by an attractive balustrade of pinkish terracotta. To the south of the ward block was the swimming bath, supplied with fresh sea water by the horse pump which piped water to underground tanks.

The 1880s wing, looking towards the chapel. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

More architecturally ornate is the Gothic chapel. Its tall nave and semi-circular apse is reminiscent of Gilbert Scott’s collegiate chapels.

The 1880s wing seen from the east, with the chapel to the left and the former swimming bath building. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson
The same part of the hospital – the chapel and swimming bath – in 1991.  © H. Richardson

The interior was given a complex decorative scheme. Stained-glass windows illustrated Christ healing the sick, the virtues, and medicinal plants, while a mural depicted the story of Naaman bathing in the River Jordan.

Chapel interior photographed in 1991

Other murals depicted saints, angels and the Tree of Knowledge. Part of the nave was kept free of seats to enable beds or wheelchairs to be brought in directly from the quadrangle verandah.

The east end of the chapel, with its apsidal end, designed by James Knowles Junior. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson

During the First World War the hospital treated British and Belgian servicemen with TB, as well as the wounded and those suffering from shell shock. A new wing, the King George V Wing, was built in 1919-20 to the west of the main complex, but this has now been demolished.

Later additions to the site, including, to the right, part of the George V Wing. Photographed in 1991 © H. Richardson

The last major addition to the site was the nurses’ home, on the corner of Canterbury and Westbrook Roads. Originally built in 1922, it was extended in 1935 from two storeys to four.

The former nurses’ home. Photographed in 2017 © H. Richardson
View of the chapel from the north-east. Photographed in 1991 © H. Richardson
Looking northwards out to sea along the roof terrace. Photographed in 1991 © H. Richardson
Looking east from the roof terrace. Photographed in 1991 © H. Richardson


Anon 1812. An Account of the Proceedings for establishing Sea-Water and other Baths, and an Infirmary, in the vicinity of London…
British Medical Journal (BMJ), 1898, ii, 1768
Cazin, Le Dr H 1885. De L’influence des Bains de Mer sur La Scrofule des Enfants
Colvin, H M 1978. A Biographical Dictionary of British   Architects 1600-1840
Gentleman’s Magazine, vol.LXVII (ii), Oct. 1797, 841; LXXXVI (i), Jan. 1816, 17
Honour, H 1953. ‘An Epic of Ruin-building’. In Country Life, 10 Dec. 1953
 Illustrated London News, 16 Sept. 1882, 298
Kent Record Office, Maidstone
Lettsom, J C 1801. Hints Designed to promote Benificence, Temperance & Medical Science (3 vols)
MacDougall, P 1984. ‘A Seabathing Infirmary’. In Bygone Kent, vol.5, No.9, Sept. 1984, 511-6
Metcalf, P 1980. James Knowles Victorian Editor and Architect
Nursing Times, 10 March 1977, 9-12
(PP) Parliamentary Papers 1907, XXVII. Annual Report of the Medical Officer of the Local Government Board
Royal Sea Bathing Hospital Archives
Strange, F G St Clair 1991. The History of the Royal Sea Bathing Hospital Margate 1791-1971
Whyman, J 1981. Aspects of Holidaymaking and Resort Development within the Isle of Thanet, with particular reference to Margate, circa 1736 to circa 1840 (vol.2)

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23 thoughts on “Margate’s Sea Bathing Hospital

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  2. How lovely to see the sea bathing hospital as it was my father-in-law was in this hospital as a child I used to jokingly laugh when he reminisced about it I would have loved to know more about his time there unfortunately he passed away and I lost the opportunity


    • My mother trained as a nurse in the hospital at the outbreak of World War 11. She has written an account of her time there as a trainee nurse. She also mentions that they treated soldiers who had been evacuated from Dunkirk. They dealt with 100 soldiers who had suffered from ‘exposure to seawater and measles, but not wounded otherwise. This was hectic, a case of all hands on deck.’


  3. Great article. Are there any records relating to admission held anywhere do you know? My grandmother went to the Hospital as a child.


  4. Hello. My mum was sent to the hospital when she was about 9 – therefore about 1947. She loved it there although found it very traumatic as in those days parents didn’t really explain things to children, she was just dropped at the station and sent off with strangers to the hospital- obviously my Nan (her mum) was doing what she thought was best for her, but with 3 other children she couldn’t afford to visit from Sussex as much as she no doubt would have liked……is there anyone out there who was in the children’s ward around that time? If so, my mum would LOVE to make contact, back then she was called Barbara fogden seale, she was from Eastbourne.


    • Hi Tina, my mother and father were both in the R.S.B.H. around this time which is where they met. Sadly, we lost mum in Nov 2019 and dad in August 2020. Although they were both in hospital for a couple of years, they never really spoke much about it, only that they met there. Age wise they both would have been somewhere around 13 – 16 years old. Whilst sorting out their posessions I came across an autograph book of mothers with lots of lovely messages left by friends and staff while she was in the R.S.B.H. She also came from Eastbourne.


  5. I was a patient at the Royal Sea Bathing in 1968 for 4 weeks. The weather was good most of the time so we, in our beds, were pushed out onto a sunny balcony every morning. Food was pretty awful, if I remember rightly!


  6. What about the orthopedic work at the hospital – there is no mention of it here. My sister was admitted in 1972 for a back operation. Is there anyone else who was there at that time? Where can I find out more information about what happened to her?


    • I was at there in 1968 for about four weeks with a slipped disc. But because I was only 16 years old they put me on the Children’s Ward. My consultant was called Dr Barter.


  7. My Mother Gretta White trained as a nurse there 1938-1939returning to Ireland to marry then .
    If anyone ever recalled her .


  8. Gretta ‘s sisters Lena, Kitty/Catherine ,Mamie White , Tooreen, D
    unmanway Ireland ,also trained there at the same time.


  9. Hi My Mum was in the hospital 1948 until 1950 her Dr was Armstrong and one of the nurses was called Sister peel, it would be lovely to hear from anyone that was there then,


    • Hi Rosemarie, my mother and father were both in the R.S.B.H. around this time which is where they met. Sadly, we lost mum in Nov 2019 and dad in August 2020. Although they were both in hospital for a couple of years, they never really spoke much about it, only that they met there. Age wise they both would have been somewhere around 13 – 16 years old. Whilst sorting out their possession’s I came across an autograph book of mothers with lots of lovely messages left by friends and staff while she was in the R.S.B.H.


  10. I was a student nurse at the Royal Seabathing Hospital in 1967. I was seconded from The Isle of Thanet District Hospital during my 3 years training. I remember the terraces where beds were wheeled onto and the patients taking in the air and sun. I also remember the beautiful sunsets.


  11. I did my orthopaedic nursing certificate at the Sea Bathing from 1971 – 1973 you could start at 17. Great memories of those days and I made life long friends. Probably the best grounding for nursing long hours and hard work but lots of laughs


  12. I was a PE student at Nonington College of PE in the mid 1970’s. I spent six weeks in the Sea Bathing Hospital either side of Easter 1975 for traction treatment for an L4/5 disc problem. Most days the beds were pushed out into the court yard area and I returned to college with a mended back and a sun tan. Being tied into a bed was hard at times but the staff and my treatment were both fantastic. I visit Margate for concerts and days out and have a huge soft spot for the hospital. I also taught for 35 years. Thank you the Royal Sea Bathing Hospital.


  13. I was there for 3 weeks in the spring of 1962. I was 5 years old and my parents were advised that after 9 weeks in Worthing hospital I would need to convalesce. The most traumatic 3 weeks of my early life. I remember laying in bed crying most of the time and having my bed pushed outside on to a balcony. It was very upsetting being left with total strangers and no visits from my family who had visited me for the one hour allowed every day while I was in Worthing Hospital. Every day I asked if could go home. I have never forgotten those 3 weeks. My poor parents were just as traumatised as I was when they had to leave me there. These days it would never happen.


  14. My daughter Sarah was there for nearly six months 1972 she had dislocated hip they had a fete which we had a visit from Larry Grayson,he actually cried which was lovely she was a pretty baby she was born on 6th June 1972


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