BARKING AND DAGENHAM
Barking Hospital (Barking Town Infectious Diseases Hospital; Upney Hospital for Infectious Diseases) TQ 456 844 102766
Dagenham Hospital (West Ham Corporation Smallpox Hospital) TQ 504 837 102765
Colindale Hospital (Central London Sick Asylum) TQ 211 901 100890
Edgware General Hospital, Edgware Road, Burnt Oak (Redhill Hospital; Redhill County Hospital).TQ 198 912 BF101398
Edgware Hospital, photographed in May 1993. Probably the Nurses’ Home, part of the 1930s additions. © H. Richardson
The earliest buildings on the present site were erected in 1925-7 as a new poor law infirmary by the Hendon Board of Guardians. With the imminent demise of the old poor law in 1929, this must be one of the latest examples of a poor-law infirmary to be built in the country. It was erected to the designs of Paine & Hobday and comprised a central administration block flanked by two, two-storeyed ward pavilions, a receiving block and an operating theatre, in addition to a nurses’ home, mortuary, boiler house and gate lodge.
Edgware Hospital, chapel, photographed in May 1993 © H. Richardson
In 1930 the hospital passed to the administration of Middlesex County Council and in 1936 plans were drawn up by W. T. Curtis, the County Architect, for a major extension scheme. Most of the work was completed in 1938 and included a new chronic or medical block, a maternity block, additional staff accommodation, and an out-patients’ department. In 1948 the hospital became a part of the National Health Service.
Finchley Memorial Hospital, Granville Road (Finchley Cottage Hospital). TQ 264 914, BF101312
Finchley Hospital, photographed in August 1992 © H. Richardson
The small cottage hospital in Finchley was established in 1908. The original two-storey, brick and rendered building now (1992) forms the administration block of the expanded hospital. The main additions to the site were made after the First World War when it became the Finchley Memorial Hospital. These inculded additional ward accommodation and a new nurses’ home. In 1948 it was transferred to the National Health Service and in the early 1990s was a geriatric hospital.
Friern Hospital (Second Middlesex County Pauper Lunatic Asylum; Colney Hatch Mental Hospital) TQ285 920 101281
Manor House Hospital, Northend Road, Golders Green (demolished 2008). TQ 260 871, BF101104
Manor House Hospital, photographed in August 1991 © H. Richardson
A large, sprawling hospital which seems to have been originally established by the Industrial Orthopaedic Society. The earliest buildings on the site of any significance dated from the late 1930s but most of the buildings were constructed after the Second World War.
On the right, the laboratory block containing the pathology department, built as a war memorial to the London Transport Workers, Manor House Hospital, photographed in August 1991 © H. Richardson
Messrs. Bethell and Swannell of the Adelphi carried out the first phase of the hospital’s development in 1938. The buildings were mostly of two or three storeys and constructed of red brick.
National Hospital Rehabilitation Unit, Great North Road, East Finchley (National Hospital Convalescent Home). TQ 271 891, BF101397
Former convalescent home for the National Hospital, photographed May 1993 © H. Richardson
This attractive, purpose-built convalescent home was erected by the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, to replace two villas which had previously been used to house female convalescent patients. The new home was built to the designs of R. Langton Cole and opened in 1897. Largely two-storeyed, it was of brick with tile-hanging and half-timbering in the stockbroker-Tudor style. The patients’ accommodation was restricted to the ground floor and was predominantly for women, with a small single-storeyed annexe for six men on the east side of the building. Minor extensions were carried out in 1927, and more recently, since it was transferred to the National Health Service, but generally, in the early 1990s, the buildings retained much of their original appearance and character.
St Stephen’s Hospital (Barnet Joint Isolation Hospital) TQ 240 956 102767
Victoria Hospital TQ 237 963 101541
Bexley Cottage Hospital and Provident Dispensary (now Upton Social Education Centre) TQ481 753 101556
Bexley Maternity Hospital TQ496 763 101594
Cray Valley Hospital (Chislehurst, Sidcup and Cray Valley Cottage Hospital; Chislehurst, Orpington and Cray Valley Hospital) TQ 460 690 101554
Erith and District Hospital (Erith, Crayford, Belvedere and Abbey Wood Cottage Hospital) TQ506 776 101549
Sidcup Cottage Hospital TQ 406 710 101566
Central Middlesex Hospital (Willesden Parish Workhouse; Central Middlesex County Hospital) TQ202 828 100834
Neasden Hospital (Willesden UDC Isolation Hospital) TQ208 850 102787
St Andrew’s Hospital TQ220 860 101553
Willesden Cottage Hospital (Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital) TQ225 841 101557
Wembley Hospital (Wembley and District Hospital) TQ176 849 101562
Beckenham Hospital (Beckenham Cottage Hospital) TQ 369 692 101551
Bromley and District Hospital (Bromley Cottage Hospital) TQ406 684 101552
Phillips Memorial Homoeopathic Hospital and Dispensary TQ307 820 101558
West Kent JHB Isolation Hospital (Bromley and Beckenham JHB Infectious Diseases Hospital) TQ429 661 102768
Alexandra Hospital, Queen Square (Alexandra Hospital for Children with Hip Disease). TQ 302 820, BF101066
The former Alexandra Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
The Alexandra Hospital was founded in 1867 in Queen Square in domestic premises. These were swept away when the present building was erected in 1899. The new building, designed by Marshall and Vickers, retained something of a domestic character. The hospital had removed to Kent by 1921.
Eastman Dental Clinic, Grays Inn Road (Royal Free Hospital). TQ 307 825, BF101084
The former Royal Free Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
The clinic was originally part of the Royal Free Hospital which relocated to Hampstead in the 1970s. The Royal Free was founded by William Marsden in 1828. It moved to Grays Inn Road in 1843 where it occupied the former barracks of the Light Horse Volunteers. The barracks were gradually replaced by a purpose-built hospital beginning with the Sussex wing to the north in 1855. Further wings were constructed between 1877 and 1895 to designs by William Harvey.
Eastman Dental Clinic,photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
In 1927-30 the Eastman Dental clinic was added to the south to designs by Sir John Burnet, Tait and Lorne. There is also a large nurses’ home on the site and the Queen Mary building to the rear of the dental clinic. In 1974-8 the Royal Free removed to Hampstead and the dental clinic remained at Grays Inn Road.
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, Euston Road (New Hospital for Women). TQ 298 827, BF101082
Former Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson founded a dispensary in St Marylebone in 1866, the first establishment in Britain to offer treatment to women by members of their own sex. This was enlarged to admit in-patients in 1872 and renamed the New Hospital for Women. In 1890 it moved to a new, purpose-built hospital designed by John McKean Brydon. This was a handsome brick building, in the Queen Anne style, comprising three connected blocks: an entrance block, with wards on the floors above; an administration block, with private wards and an operating theatre; and a circular ward tower (since demolished), housing an out-patients’ department on the ground floor. Later additions include a red-brick ward wing of 1929, designed by Sir Brumwell Thomas, and a large nurses’ home of 1937, designed by Stanley Hall, Easton and Robertson.
Great Ormond Street Hospital (London Hospital for Sick Children). TQ 304 820, BF101062
Great Ormond Street Hospital, infirmary wing designed by E. M. Barry. From The Builder 27 January 1872
This renowned institution, England’s first children’s hospital, was established in 1851 by Dr Charles West in a rented house in Great Ormond Street. An adjoining property was taken in 1858. Between 1872 and 1877 a new purpose-built hospital was erected beside the original houses, to designs by E. M. Barry, its large, well-fenestrated wards and corner sanitary ‘turrets’ reflecting the contemporary prevalence of ‘pavilion’ planning in hospital design. The new buildings also featured a suitably large out-patients’ department, many ward kitchens and other special features, including a particularly fine chapel with an elaborate decorative scheme by Clayton & Bell.
Interior of the chapel, photographed 2014 by Diliff, CC BY-SA 3.0 from Wikimedia
The hospital was extended in 1890-3 by the addition of a new Jubilee Wing, by Charles Barry, on the site of the old houses, which had been demolished in 1882. In the late 1920s and 1930s a grand reconstruction scheme was devised by Stanley Hall and Easton and Robertson. Of this, only a large Nurses’ Home (1934-7), on Guildford Street, and the Southwood Building (1937-8), a large, eight-storey ward block, were completed. In recent years much redevelopment has taken place at Great Ormond Street, necessitating the demolition of E. M. Barry’s original hospital block, although the listed chapel has been retained and restored as an integral part of a new hospital building.
Hampstead General and North West London Hospital, Out-Patients’ Department TQ289 838 101076
Hampstead General and North West London Hospital (demolished), Haverstock Hill (Hampstead General Hospital). TQ 272 854, BF101100 A small urban general hospital, cleverly planned by Keith D. Young to fit a restricted and steeply-sloping site, and erected between c.1905 and 1908. (Prior to this the hospital had carried on for some years in some dwelling houses in Parliament Hill Road.) The new hospital comprised an administration block, private patients’ wing, operating theatre block, general ward block, out-patients’ department and mortuary, all of brick with some stone dressings. It was demolished c.1975.
Institute of Ophthalmology, Judd Street (Central London Ophthalmic Hospital). TQ 302 824, BF101081
Former Ophthalmic Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
An architecturally uninspired, purpose-built, eye hospital designed by John Ladds and built 1911-13. It is of four storeys, basement and attic and in 1991 was the home of the Institute of Ophthalmology.
Italian Hospital, Queen Square. TQ 304 819, BF101063
Main front of the Italian Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
Founded in 1884 for the Italian-speaking population in London. The present hospital building was designed by Thomas W. Cutler and erected in 1898-1900. It is a stylish classical edifice, of red brick and Portland stone, cleverly planned to accommodate on a confined corner site all the services required by a general hospital, including a small, domed, circular chapel. An extension wing was added to the south in 1911, designed by J. Dench Slater in a similar style, and in 1927 an adjacent public house was acquired and converted to a nurses’ home. Latterly it has been converted into a hotel for relatives of patients in Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital, which is just around the corner.
National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Queen Square (National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic). TQ 304 821, BF101065
The rear of the National Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
Founded in 1860 as the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic in rented property in Queen Square, in 1884-5 the hospital was provided with a large new building designed by Simpson and Manning, with accommodation for 160 patients. A separate institution, the London Infirmary for Epilepsy and Paralysis, was established in 1866 in Charles Street. Subsequently this hospital was affiliated with the National, becoming its Maida Vale branch. In 1937 the Queen Mary Wing was added, designed by Slater, Moberly and Uren.
National Institute for Medical Research, Mount Vernon (North London Hospital for Consumption; Mount Vernon Hospital). TQ 262 849, BF101101
Mount Vernon Hospital, photographed in August 1991 © H. Richardson
A purpose-built consumption hospital, designed by T. Roger Smith and erected on an elevated site in Hampstead in three phases between 1880 and 1903 (the institution had earlier occupied an old house on an adjoining site). The new hospital, of red brick and stone, in a French Renaissance style, had smallish wards arranged either side of a wide central corridor, with sanitary facilities in corner turrets and in a projection above the entrance porch. A large, red-brick laboratory block, designed by Maxwell Ayrton, was added to the north-west in 1930.
National Temperance Hospital, Hampstead Road. TQ292 827, BF101098
National Temperance Hospital, Hampstead Road, photographed in August 1991. © H. Richardson
Founded in 1873, the Temperance Hospital was established in Hampstead Road c.1878-81 in a building designed by T.R. Barker. A west wing was added which opened in 1885 and in 1907 a new out-patients’ block was completed to designs by Rowland Plumbe. The Insull Memorial wing was a reconstruction of the out-patients block c.1922-5. The hospital operated as a general hospital which did not administer alcohol to its patients. It was supposedly the first hospital not to use alcohol for operations.
New End Hospital (Hampstead Union Workhouse). TQ 264 860, BF101089
The circular ward tower at New End Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
An important and historic site, containing a variety of purpose-built poor-law and medical buildings of several periods and types. These reflect significant developments in hospital planning and design, and relate closely to contemporary legislation. The oldest structure on the site, built in 1849-50 as Hampstead Union Workhouse, was designed by H. E. Kendall. A large, symmetrical Italianate block, it is the best surviving example of the workhouses built in London under the Poor Law Act of 1834. It is listed Grade 2. To this was added, in 1869, a dispensary and an infirmary, both designed by John Giles, and both embodying the changing emphasis at that time from provision of care for the destitute to provision of care for the sick and infirm, as expressed in the Metropolitan Poor Act of 1867. The narrow wards and tall windows of the infirmary betray the influence of Florence Nightingale’s ideas on hospital planning. The infirmary was extended in 1878, again by John Giles. The most notable structure on the site is Charles Bell’s circular ward tower of 1884-5, the first large-scale, free-standing example of its type in the country. It provided three floors of wards, each 50 feet in diameter, and each capable of holding 24 beds positioned radially against the outer wall. This building is also listed Grade 2. A further infirmary block, designed by K. D. Young, was added to the west of the workhouse and dispensary, facing New End, in 1896. Administered as a general hospital, known as New End Hospital, under both the London County Council and the National Health Service, the buildings were empty in 1991 and awaiting redevelopment.
North Western Fever Hospital (demolished), Lawn Road (Hampstead Smallpox Hospital). TQ 273 854, BF101099 It began life in 1870 as a temporary smallpox hospital, a complex of hastily-erected iron and timber huts, designed by Pennington & Bridgen for the Metropolitan Asylums Board. The site was gradually converted into a permanent fever hospital, and re-opened as the North-Western Fever Hospital in 1882-3. More temporary wards were added in 1887 and 1892, and between 1892 and 1897 a group of permanent brick buildings were erected on the site of the original temporary hospital. The hospital has been demolished and its site is now occupied by the Royal Free Hospital (North-Western Branch).
Ophthalmic Hospital (demolished), Albany Street. TQ 288 827, BF101412 An early London specialist hospital, established in 1818 for soldiers whose eyesight had been affected during the Egyptian campaigns. It was designed by John Nash and built at the instance of Sir William Adams, George IV’s oculist. It was a plain, two-storey block, comprising a central administrative section with flanking two-storey ward wings. The hospital boasted an early type of artificial heating and ventilation system, designed by the Marquis de Chabannes, a French emigré. Although originally faced with brick, the hospital, in a severe, neo-Greek style, was subsequently stuccoed. Used in later years as a factory and a distillery, the building was demolished soon after 1960.
Royal London Homoeopathic Hospital, Great Ormond Street (Homoeopathic Hospital; London Homoeopathic Hospital). TQ 304 819, BF101064
Homeopathic Hospital, Queen Square building, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
Founded in 1850, the Homeopathic Hospital moved to its present site in 1857. Initially it occupied three converted houses. A new wing was added in 1883 by A.R. Pite, and the hospital was rebuilt in 1893-5 by W. A. Pite with a further extension to Queen Square added in 1909. The nurses’ home opposite the main entrance on Great Ormond Street was added in 1911 to designs by E. T. Hall. The hospital was still in use in the early 1990s and the buildings relatively little altered. The elevation to Queen Square is particularly imposing.
Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, Gray’s Inn Road (Central London Throat and Ear Hospital). TQ 306 825, BF101083
Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, photographed in July 1991. © H. Richardson
A small specialist hospital, established in 1875-6 in a building, designed by Ernest Turner, which was apparently a reconstruction of two existing houses. Turner added an out-patients’ department in 1894 and further extensions, including a new out-patients’ department designed by Young & Hall and a nurses’ hostel, were built between 1932 and c.1948. The hospital acquired its current name following amalgamation with the ear, nose and throat hospital in Golden Square.
Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital, 176 High Holborn (Moorfields Eye Hospital). TQ 302 813, BF87883 Although the hospital was founded in 1816 it did not move to High Holborn until 1927 when a new hospital was built to the designs of Adams, Holden and Pearson. The eight-storeyed brick building provided a square-plan out-patients’ department on the ground floor with administration offices and wards on the floors above arranged on a T-plan. A branch of the main Moorfields Hospital on City Road, it was empty in 1991 and due for demolition.
St Luke’s Hospital for the Clergy, 14, Fitzroy Square. TQ 292 821, BF101077
St Luke’s Hospital, photographed in July 1991. © H. Richardson
A small general hospital founded in 1892 for clergymen of the Church of England. The present site, comprising two houses on the north side of the square, was acquired in 1904. It was rebuilt in stages the first part opening in 1907, the second in 1923.
St Margaret’s Hospital, Leighton Road (St Margaret’s Home). TQ 291 852, BF101105
St Margaret’s Hospital, photographed in August 1991. © H. Richardson
St Margaret’s Hospital was built by the St Pancras Board of Guardians as a Receiving Home for children in 1903-4. It provided accommodation for 60 children, twenty boys, twenty girls and twenty infants. There were six ten-bed dormitories and two isolation wards in a plain, three storey block. It was built to designs by Albert E. Pridmore and the contractor was C. Gray Hill of London and Coventry. The home was constructed of stock brick with red brick dressings and a minimum of decorative detail. It was converted into a hospital for mothers and children suffering from Ophthalmia Neonatorum in 1918.
St Pancras Hospital, St Pancras Way (St Pancras Union Workhouse). TQ 297 836, BF101106
St Pancras Hospital, photographed in August 1991. © H. Richardson
A new workhouse for St Pancras was erected on this site in 1809. Small male and female infirmaries were added in 1848-9. Inadequate and overcrowded by the 1870s, the site was extended in 1882-4 by H. H. Bridgman, who designed a large, five-storey block for chronic and infirm patients, the first part of a proposed scheme of expansion and improvement. Further additions were made by A. & C. Harston in 1890-6: these included admission blocks, a new administrative building, and large dormitory and staff blocks. All the poor-law buildings are of brick, in a typically gloomy late-nineteenth-century workhouse gothic style. Two chapels were added in 1899. The London County Council took control of the site in 1930, converting it to hospital use, subsequently adding a maternity block and a mental observation unit.
St Paul’s Hospital (British Lying-in Hospital; St Paul’s Hospital for Skin and Genito-urinary Disease) TQ 320 810 101071
Smallpox and Fever Hospital, Pancras Place (Smallpox Hospital). A purpose-built smallpox hospital, erected in 1793-4 on a site at Battle Bridge, in St Pancras. The charity responsible for the smallpox hospital was founded in c.1746 and was thought to be the first of its kind in Europe. The building was demolished between 1845 and 1850 to make way for the new Great Northern Railway Terminus at King’s Cross, and was replaced by a new hospital at Highgate, which opened in 1848. TQ 302 833, BF101093
University College Hospital (former), Gower Street (North London Hospital, now the Cruciform Building, UCL). TQ 295 822, BF101078
The former University College Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
University College Hospital was erected in phases between 1833 and 1846, to designs by Alfred Ainger. The hospital provided practical clinical experience for students of the medical faculty of the recently-formed University College. The hospital was a plain, neo-classical block of three storeys; a fourth storey was added in 1867. By the late 1870s it had been decided to replace this rather cramped and insanitary building with a new hospital, planned for the same though enlarged site in the shape of a St Andrew’s Cross, with ward wings forming the arms of the cross radiating from a central staircase section. Each wing was, itself, cruciform in shape and had at its extreme end a properly disconnected sanitary tower. The architect of this design was Alfred Waterhouse, although the basic layout was the idea of Dr G. Vivian Poore, a physician on the hospital staff.
Detail of the entrance former University College Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
The new hospital was erected in phases between 1897 and 1906, and is a tall, dramatic, turreted building of red brick and pink terracotta. Alfred Waterhouse died before work was finished and was succeeded as architect to the hospital by his son Paul. Subsequent additions, all on streets surrounding the main building, include a Medical College and Nurses’ Home (1906-7), by Paul Waterhouse; an Obstetric Hospital and Home for Resident Medical Officers (1923-6), by George Hornblower; an Ear Hospital (1926-7), by Wimperis, Simpson & Guthrie; and a private patients’ wing (1936), designed by Michael Waterhouse and Cedric Ripley.
Whittington Hospital, Highgate Wing, Dartmouth Park Hill (St Pancras Union Infirmary; Highgate Hospital). TQ 288 869, BF101069
Highgate Wing, Whittington Hospital, photographed in August 1991. © H. Richardson
An early example of a metropolitan poor-law infirmary built on a site separate from its associated workhouse. Designed by John Giles & Biven and erected in 1868-70, it is an exemplary Florence Nightingale-inspired pavilion-plan hospital, with large ward wings flanking a central administrative section, and no unnecessary architectural decoration; all the buildings are plain blocks of stock brick. A nurses’ home and chapel were added c.1893 by A. & C. Harston. The hospital had closed by the early 1990s and most of the buildings on the site scheduled for demolition.
CITY OF LONDON
Bethlehem Hospital (Bedlam). Bedlam was the earliest lunatic asylum in the country, originally established, in a modest way, as part of the Priory of St Mary of Bethlehem. By the early 16th century a separate building existed as a lunatics’ hospital which, following the dissolution of the Priory, was administered by representatives of the City of London. In 1674 the governors decided that a new building on a new site was required, and the city architect, Robert Hooke, was requested to prepare plans. New Bedlam contrasted strongly with the old. It was of truly palatial scale and style, with more than an echo of the Palais des Tuileries in Paris. Although the ground plan does not survive, there are enough descriptions of the hospital to be able to form a fair impression of the accommodation. The patients slept and were often confined in cells, with a small, unglazed window placed high in the wall. Large galleries served as corridors of communication and exercise areas, off which were privies. In 1725 and 1733 wings were added for incurable patients to the east and west. One of these was used as the setting for the eighth scene of Hogarth’s ‘Rake’s Progress’. By the early years of the nineteenth century the hospital was in a poor condition and it had been necessary to pull down the east wing in 1807. It was replaced by a new building in south London between 1812 and 1815, and the rest of the asylum at Moorfields was demolished. On the site of Hooke’s asylum, Finsbury Circus was laid out c.1820. TQ 328 816, BF101992
Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, Blomfield Street (Moorfields Eye Hospital). This was one of the earliest specialist hospitals in Britain, founded in 1804 as a dispensary in rented premises in Charterhouse Square, but by 1805 properly established as an infirmary, the London Infirmary for Curing Diseases of the Eye. Its growing reputation as a centre for the treatment and study of eye disease necessitated a move to larger premises, and a new hospital was built at Moorfields, to designs by Robert Smirke, and opened in 1822 as the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, commonly known as Moorfields Eye Hospital. The hospital was extended in the 1860s and 1870s, but by 1887 its accommodation was inadequate, and a new hospital, financed by the sale of the old building and site at Moorfields, was erected in the City Road to designs by Keith Young. TQ 292 821, BF101077
St Bartholomew’s Hospital TQ 319 815, BF101315
The inner courtyard and one of the ward wings, photographed in October 1992, © H. Richardson
London’s oldest and most historic general hospital, still occupying its original site at West Smithfield. It was founded in 1123 by Rahere, but the only reminders of its medieval past are the fifteenth-century tower and vestry of the hospital parish church of St Bartholomew the Less; the rest of the church was rebuilt by George Dance the Younger in 1789-91, and again in 1823-5 by Thomas Hardwick. In 1702 a new stone-faced hospital gatehouse was erected facing Smithfield. This was designed by Edward Strong, nephew of Christopher Wren’s chief mason. Its construction coincided with the demolition of the adjoining medieval buildings and their replacement with brick-built Georgian houses. This policy of improvement and modernization reached its zenith with the rebuilding of the hospital, between 1730 and 1768, to designs by James Gibbs, a hospital governor. Gibbs provided a neo-classical complex comprising four large, three-storey blocks of Bath stone, in a formal composition around a courtyard. The North Wing, which housed the administrative rooms and was erected first, contained a great hall for governors’ meetings, and a ceremonial staircase decorated with large figure-paintings by William Hogarth, another hospital governor. Each of the three other wings contained three floors of partitioned wards, providing a total of 504 beds. Additions were made at the end of the eighteenth century by George Dance the Younger, who designed a lecture theatre for the emergent medical school on a site behind Gibbs’s West Wing; this was enlarged in 1822 and again in 1834-5, and has since been replaced. In 1842 Philip Hardwick, then architect and surveyor to the hospital, improved its appearance by demolishing the houses and shops flanking the entrance gateway and replacing them with a classical screen wall, of Portland stone. Hardwick also added a ward block, known as Lucas Block, with an adjoining out-patients’ department and operating theatre (the hospital’s first purpose-built theatre), on the north-east corner of the site. Lucas Block was enlarged by P. C. Hardwick in 1861 to accommodate a larger out-patients’ department. With the growth of the medical school and of individual clinical departments, there were considerable extensions at the hospital during the late Victorian and Edwardian periods. These include a library and museum block of 1878-9, by Edward I’Anson; a new medical theatre and school, of 1879; a new out-patients’ department of 1904-7, by E. B. I’Anson; and a pathological block of 1907-9, also by E. B. I’Anson. All were designed in a suitable classical style and faced in Portland stone. Later additions include a large, seven-storey nurses’ home, designed by H. E. Edmunds, erected in 1921-9; and a new combined surgical, operating and medical block, designed by W. T. A. Lodge (of Lanchester & Lodge), and built between 1929 and 1937, necessitating the demolition of Gibbs’s South Wing of 1736-9.
Cane Hill Hospital (Third Surrey County Pauper Lunatic Asylum) TQ 290 587 101293
The former Canehill Asylum, photographed through the rain, in August 1992 © H. Richardson
Croydon General Hospital (Oakfield Lodge) TQ 321 663 101353
Croydon General Hospital, photographed in November 1992. © H. Richardson
Mayday University Hospital, Mayday Road (Croydon Union Workhouse Infirmary; Mayday Hospital). TQ 321 675, BF101352
Mayday Hospital, photographed in November 1992 © H. Richardson
A large poor-law infirmary erected in 1885 to designs by Berney and Monday, architects to the Croydon Union Board of Guardians. It was a substantial, pavilion-plan hospital of stock brick and has been substantially added to this century. It was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 and remained in use as a large general hospital in 1992.
Norwood Hospital, Hermitage Road (Cambridge House). TQ 327 708, BF101350
Norwood Hospital, photographed in November 1992 © H. Richardson
Erected as a small cottage hospital in 1881, the building was later greatly extended in the same style. It was built of red brick with tile hanging above and was partly of one storey and attic and partly of two storeys and attic. During the 1930s a single-storeyed flat-roofed extension was erected, probably as an out-patients’ department. The hospital was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 but in the early 1990s was used to accommodate people with additional support needs.
Purley and District Cottage Hospital, Brighton Road. TQ 314 618, BF101296
Purley Cottage Hospital, photographed in August 1992 © H. Richardson
The present (1992) administration block was originally all that existed of Purley Cottage Hospital. It was opened in 1909 and had been designed in the previous year by John Newton, a local architect. It was a simple, two-storey building of brick and render, which provided just five beds.
The Out-Patients’ Department, Purely Cottage Hospital, photographed in August 1992 © H. Richardson
It was greatly extended during the 1920s with the addition of further ward accommodation in two-storey wings to the rear and a new, Arts and Crafts style nurses’ home. An out-patients’ department was added in 1939, designed by H. Berney and Son.
Queens Road Hospital (Croydon Union Workhouse). TQ 316 674, BF101351
Queen’s Road Hospital, photographed in November 1992 © H. Richardson
Erected in 1865 as a new workhouse for the Croydon Union, this large Italianate building designed by J. Berney, replaced the former Croydon Workhouse which had been established in 1726 at Duppas Hill. The central tower was all that survived of the long front wing; some of the old ward wings and out-buildings survived but were empty and ruinous.
Infirmary wing, Queen’s Road Hospital, photographed in November 1992 © H. Richardson
Separate infirmary wings, one of 1879, and children’s homes added in 1905 at the rear of the site, were partially used as office accommodation by the health authority and a day hospital had been built on the site of the master’s house.
Waddon Hospital (Croydon Borough Hospital) Q 304 666 102769
Acton Hospital, Gunnersbury Lane (Jubilee Cottage Hospital; Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital). TQ 195 800, BF101274
Acton Hospital, photographed in July 1992 © H. Richardson
The Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital was erected on the Uxbridge Road in 1897-8, to designs by Charles Bell. The foundation stone was laid by Lady Rothschild on 9 June 1897 and the hospital was opened on 4 May 1898 by Mrs Creighton. Bell designed a simple and attractive building, in a vernacular neo-Georgian style. The original arrangement, with a central three-storey administrative block flanked by adjoining single-storey ward wings, has been somewhat lost amidst rather dreary red-brick additions of the 1920s and 1930s.
Clayponds Hospital (Chiswick UDC Isolation Hospital; Chiswick and Ealing Isolation Hospital) TQ 181 788 102770
Ealing Cottage Hospital and Provident Dispensary TQ 170 800 101546
Ealing Hospital, St Bernard’s Wing (Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum; Hanwell Asylum). TQ 117 180 38801
Ealing Hospital, St Bernard’s Wing – part of the former Hanwell Asylum, photographed in November 1991 © H. Richardson
King Edward Memorial Hospital TQ 170 800 101547
Leamington Park Hospital (demolished), Wales Farm Road (Acton Isolation Hospital).TQ 207 815, BF101113 A small isolation hospital designed in 1904-5 for Acton Urban District by D. J. Ebbetts, the Council Surveyor. The administration block was in a converted mansion house on the site.
Queen Victoria and War Memorial Hospital (demolished), Green Lane (Hanwell Cottage Hospital). TQ 152 798, BF101185 This small cottage hospital was designed by R. A. Reid and opened in 1900. It was extended in 1933 by Dodge and Reid, and was still in operation under the National Health Service in the early 1960s.
Chase Farm Hospital, The Ridgeway (Chase Farm Schools). TQ 312 980, BF101252
Chase Farm Hospital, photographed in June 1992 © H. Richardson
This large hospital was originally provided by Edmonton Board of Guardians as a poor-law school for 500 children. It was designed by T. E. Knightley in 1885 and opened in 1886. By the 1930s the number of pupils had dwindled and the schools gradually evolved into a hospital, serving as an emergency hospital during the Second World War, which was then taken over by the National Health Service in 1948. The school infirmary has been demolished but most of the original buildings remained in the early 1990s, amongst a large number of more recent blocks.
Enfield War Memorial Hospital (demolished), Chase Side (Enfield Cottage Hospital). TQ 324 976 101314 A small cottage hospital designed by T. J. Hill in 1874. It was later extended and became known as the War Memorial Hospital following the First World War.
Highlands Hospital, World’s End Lane, Winchmore Hill (Northern Convalescent Fever Hospital and South Lodge Hospital). TQ 306 957, BF101254
Highlands Hospital, photographed in June 1992 © H. Richardson
This was originally two separate hospitals, the Northern Convalescent Fever Hospital, built in 1885-7 and administered by the Metropolitan Asylums Board, and South Lodge Hospital, built in 1899-1900 as the Joint Isolation Hospital for Enfield and Edmonton. The Northern Hospital was designed by Pennington & Bridgen and comprised a large administration block and sixteen detached villas or pavilions for the patients. A further double pavilion and a nurses’ home were added later. South Lodge Hospital was designed by a Mr Collins, the District Council Surveyor, and consisted of a three-storey administration block, a small single-storey observation or admissions block, and a group of six single-storey detached ward pavilions, at least two of which were additions of 1908-10.
One of the 1930s ward blocks, photographed in June 1992 © H. Richardson
Four further single-storey ward blocks, designed by H. R. Crabb, were added c.1938.
North Middlesex Hospital (Edmonton Union Workhouse; Strand Union Workhouse) TQ 335 923 100891
St Michael’s Hospital, 19 Chase Side Crescent (Enfield Union School, Enfield Workhouse).TQ 326 976, BF101253
St Michael’s Hospital, photographed in June 1992 © H. Richardson
A pre New Poor Law workhouse, built in 1827 and later converted to educational use. Remaining buildings include the brick workhouse and chapel, and a mid-twentieth century ward block, probably erected when the site was converted to hospital use.
British Hospital for Mothers and Babies TQ 390 770 101593
Brook General Hospital, Shooter’s Hill Road (Brook Fever Hospital). TQ 423 766, BF101091
Gate Lodge, Brook Fever Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
The Brook Fever Hospital was provided by the Metropolitan Asylums Board as one of three new fever hospitals planned for London in response to the scarlet fever epidemic of 1892-3, and, as such, typifies the compact, multi-storey approach to fever-hospital planning in the capital at the time. It was designed by Thomas W. Aldwinckle, and comprised eight two-storey ward pavilions for scarlet fever, four smaller two-storey pavilions for diphtheria and enteric fever, and six single-storey isolation ward blocks.
One of the ward pavilions, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
These were separated from the administrative and staff buildings, and the hospital had two distinct entrances – infectious and non-infectious – situated on either side of the porter’s gate-lodge. Most of the buildings were plain and utilitarian, of red brick, though the administration building, gate-lodge and the Medical Superintendent’s and Steward’s houses have some attractive neo-Tudor touches. The hospital took on a more general role under the National Health Service in 1948 and was much altered and added to subsequently.
Castlewood Day Hospital, 25 Shooter’s Hill Road (Woolwich and Plumstead Cottage Hospital). TQ 431 767, BF101092
Castlewood Day Hospital, photographed in July 1992 © H. Richardson
A small red-brick cottage hospital in a simple Queen Anne Revival style, built in 1889 to commemorate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee. The honorary architect was J. P. Cook. The cottage hospital closed in 1928, but was renovated and reopened as a day hospital in 1962.
Dreadnought Seamen’s Hospital, Romney Road (Roval Naval Hospital Infirmary). TQ 384 777 BF101280
Dreadnought Seamen’s Hospital, photographed in July 1992 © H. Richardson
In 1870 the Seamen’s Hospital Society found a permanent home in the disused infirmary of the old Royal Hospital at Greenwich; prior to this the society had provided beds for sick and diseased seamen in a succession of converted warships moored on the Thames atGreenwich (these included the Dreadnought, which gave the hospital its name). The Royal Hospital Infirmary was designed by James ‘Athenian’ Stuart and built in 1763-4 under the supervision of William Robinson. It comprised a square, two- and three-storey brick-built block of small wards arranged around an inner courtyard, with a central block containing sanitary facilities. The hospital was extended in 1808 by the addition of a second, single-storey ward block, known as Somerset Ward, to the west of the existing building. The new block was designed by John Yenn and H. H. Seward as a ‘Helpless Ward’ for men who needed special care; a chapel (since demolished) was added on the first floor in 1888, and a second floor of wards was added in the 1930s by Sir Edwin Cooper.
The Nurses’ Home, photographed in July 1992 © H. Richardson
Cooper also designed the nurses’ home, which was built in 1926-9, on a site on the south side of Romney Road; this is a grand Baroque composition of red brick and stone, and incorporates the remains of William Newton’s stock-brick Royal Hospital School Boys’ Infirmary, of 1783. Cooper also designed the hospital’s pathological library, of 1926-9, in a similar style.
Eltham and Mottingham Cottage Hospital (now Woodlands) TQ 428 743 101543
Goldie Leigh Hospital (Goldie Leigh Homes) TQ 470 776 102771
Greenwich District Hospital (Greenwich Union Workhouse; St Alfege’s Hospital) TQ 396 782 100826
Miller Memorial Hospital (Royal Kent Dispensary) T Q 376 769 101555
Memorial Hospital, Shooter’s Hill Road (Woolwich War Memorial Hospital). TQ 435 764, BF101090
Woolwich War Memorial Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
This general hospital was built to replace the cottage hospital which had been established in 1889 on Shooter’s Hill. In 1917 it was proposed to erect a new hospital as a War Memorial to the people of Woolwich who had lost their lives during the First World War. The design for the new building was drawn up by W. A. Pite, Son and Fairweather and comprised a large, pavilion-plan hospital with 300 beds. Work commenced in 1922 but the plans were never fully executed. Of the six proposed ward pavilions only two were built.
Memorial Hall, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
The administration block of pale brick has stylish neo-Georgian details but the most impressive part of the hospital is the marble memorial hall.
Royal Herbert Hospital, Shooter’s Hill Road (Herbert Military Hospital; now Royal Herbert Pavilions). TQ 427 766, BF84673
Herbert Hospital, end of a ward pavilion, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
This seminal pavilion-plan hospital was built by and for the army to the designs of Captain Douglas Galton, relative and friend of Florence Nightingale, and was the first large-scale hospital to fully embody her ideas. The plans were drawn up in 1860-1 and work began on the site soon afterwards. After a slight delay caused by problems of subsidence the hospital opened in November 1865. Following swiftly on the heels of the controversial army hospital at Netley, Portsmouth, the publicity which surrounded every stage of the planning and construction of the Herbert Hospital ensured that its design was exceptionally well known. It remained a the model for subsequent pavilion-plan hospitals even after defects in its design had been identified and rectified in later hospital plans. The large hospital with accommodation for 650 patients, was constructed of Suffolk white bricks and comprised seven rows of two-storey and basement pavilions. These were built in ranks on a north-south axis and linked by a single storey corridor running the length of the site from east to west. The style of the buildings was sparingly Italianate.
Royal Naval Hospital (now Royal Naval College) TQ 385 779 100918
Woolwich Naval Hospital (Royal Marines Hospital) TQ 427 788 100721
German Hospital, Ritson Road.TQ 342 849, BF101156 A general hospital for the treatment of German-speaking patients by their own countrymen was established in London in 1845 in an old orphanage building in Dalston. This was replaced in 1863-4 by a larger, purpose-built hospital, designed by Professor T. L. Donaldson and E. A. Grüning.
The new hospital, of brick, in a homely Jacobean style, comprised a U-shaped two-storey administration block, connected by a corridor to a three-storey ward wing, one of the earliest examples in the country of the pavilion-plan ward wings recommended by Florence Nightingale, who had connections with the German Hospital. Two Edwardian-style houses for nurses and doctors were added to the south of the main building, in 1911 and 1912 respectively; these were designed by Charles G. F. Rees. A new out-patients’ department was erected in 1931, but the most impressive building on the site is the large extension wing designed by Burnet, Tait & Lorne and built in 1936.
The German Hospital, Burnet, Tait & Lorne extension. Photographed 1990s © H. Richardson
Its clean, elegant lines and functional design reflect the influence of contemporary continental architecture, as do the use of sun balconies and the dramatic roof-top terrace with its cantilevered entrance canopy.
Hackney Hospital, Homerton High Street (Hackney Union Workhouse). TQ 361 851, BF101997
Hackney Hospital, photographed 1993 © H. Richardson
The workhouse at Homerton opened in 1845; only one structure, the workhouse administration block, appears to survive from the original complex. The site was extended by the addition of various poor-law buildings between c.1873 and c.1894. A new pavilion-plan infirmary, designed by W. A. Finch, architect to the local guardians, was built in phases between c.1880-2 and c.1908-10; the long construction period was marked by modifications to the design of the buildings (at the request of the Local Government Board), and the two ward pavilions erected in the twentieth century do not have the corner sanitary turrets of the earlier pair. A nurses’ home and lunatic block, both also by Finch, were added c.1911, and later additions include an immense joint laundry (c.1916), a second nurses’ home (c.1936) and a maternity block (c.1938). Administered under both the London County Council and the National Health Service as a general hospital, in 1993 only a part of the site was still occupied and a number of the workhouse and infirmary buildings were in the process of being demolished.
Homerton Hospital (Eastern Fever Hospital and Smallpox Hospital) T Q 356 853 102772
Metropolitan Hospital, Kingsland Road (Metropolitan Free Hospital; Metropolitan Provident Hospital). TQ 334 842, BF101226
Metropolitan Hospital, Kingsland Road, photographed in February 1992 © H. Richardson
A purpose-built general hospital, offering treatment to the poor of London’s East End, designed by H. H. Collins and James Edmeston and built in 1885-7. It comprised: a six-storey administration block, connected to a five-storey ward pavilion to the north (a matching southern pavilion was planned but never added); a smaller, three-storey accident block, with a ward for Jewish patients on one of the upper floors; and a two-storey out-patients’ department and dispensary. There was also a small basement mortuary.
Metropolitan Hospital, Nurses’ Home, photographed in February 1992 © H. Richardson
In 1910 the hospital was modernised and improved under the direction of Young & Hall, who, among other things, entirely redesigned the out-patients’ department. A new nurses’ home was designed by Young & Hall and added to the west of the site c.1929; this featured a succession of small sitting-rooms which could be combined to form a large hall for dances and other functions. All the buildings are of brick. The site was redeveloped in 1992-3.
Royal Infirmary for Diseases of the Chest T Q 323 829 102773
St Leonard’s Hospital, Kingsland Road (St Leonard’s, Shoreditch, Workhouse).TQ 335 834 101225
St Leonard’s Hospital, photographed in February 1992 © H. Richardson
A workhouse for St Leonard’s parish was established in 1777 and replaced in 1863 by new buildings on the same site. These comprised an imposing block facing Kingsland Road containing the offices and accommodation for female paupers, with a large dining hall in a wing to the rear. A number of additional buildings were erected on the site subsequently, the most significant of which was a large pavilion-plan infirmary designed by Mr Lee and completed in 1872.
Ward block, St Leonard’s Hospital, photographed in February 1992 © H. Richardson
In 1920 the whole institution became a hospital and it was transferred as such to the London County Council in 1930.
St Matthew’s Hospital (St Luke’s, Middlesex, Workhouse; Holborn Union Workhouse) TQ 323 829 100921
Salvation Army Hospital for Women TQ 340 840 101592
HAMMERSMITH AND FULHAM
Fulham Hospital (Fulham Union Workhouse) T Q 236 779 100827
Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road (Hammersmith Workhouse).TQ 225 813, BF101275
Hammersmith Hospital, photographed in July 1992. © H. Richardson
A general hospital built on a pavilion-plan arrangement as a workhouse and infirmary to designs by the architects Giles, Gough & Trollope and opened in 1905. There has since been a series of extensive additions and alterations. Responsibility for administering the hospital passed from the Hammersmith Board of Guardians to the London County Council under the Local Government Act of 1929. In 1948 it was transferred to the National Health Service and has been extensively redeveloped.
Queen Charlotte’s Hospital for Women (Queen Charlotte’s Hospital; Queen Charlotte’s Maternity Hospital) T Q 221 790 101273
Queen Charlotte’s Hospital, photographed in July 1992. © H. Richardson
Royal Masonic Hospital, Ravenscourt Park. TQ 222 789, BF101272
Royal Masonic Hospital, photographed in November 1992 © H. Richardson
The hospital was founded in 1914 when an appeal was launched for funds to establish a masonic nursing home. In 1916 the former Chelsea Hospital for Women on the Fulham Road was acquired, but was immediately handed over to the War Office to house wounded soldiers. At the end of the First World War the building returned to civilian use and re-opened as the Freemasons’ Hospital and Nursing Home in 1920. The hospital proved highly successful and a decade later it was decided to erect a new hospital on a site overlooking Ravenscourt Park. After a limited competition the firm of Sir John Burnet, Tait and Lorne were awarded the commission.
The new hospital was a tour de force of the new modern style; the steel-frame construction allowed for a greater freedom in design with the walls punctuated by large areas of glass. This enabled the architects to create a particularly light and airy interior. The cantilevered sun-balconies were one of the most innovative features.
Balconies at the end of the ward wings. Photographed in November 1992, © H. Richardson
When the hospital was opened in 1933 it comprised four sections:the administration block, the ward block, annexe and surgical and electrical block. The administration block was to the east, built on a T-plan and four storeys high. Linked to this was the U-plan ward block where the wards, which contained four beds at most, overlooked a garden court with an ornamental pool. Behind this to the north the annexe contained the boilers and service rooms as well as the main entrance for patients arriving by ambulance. The electrical and surgical block contained the operating theatres on the top floor as well as the radiology and physiotherapy departments and nurses’ dining-rooms on the ground floor. The main hospital kitchen was on the upper floor of the ward block. In 1936 work began on a nurses’ home on a site to the south-west of the main buildings. Also designed by Burnet, Tait and Lorne, this was a largely four-storeyed building, again with a garden court to the south. The same architectural firm, but this time with Gordon Tait producing the plans, was responsible for the design of the Wakefield Wing, which opened in 1958. This provided additional ward accommodation and a chapel. In the 1970s a new surgical block, the Percy Still Wing, and a new staff accommodation block, Frank Douglas Court, were erected, both designed by Watkins Gray Woodgate International.
West London Hospital, Hammersmith Road (Elm Tree House; West of London Hospital and Dispensary). TQ 235 786, BF101276
West London Hospital, photographed in July 1992, © H. Richardson
This substantial general hospital in the centre of Hammersmith was founded as a dispensary in 1856. It moved into a house on the present site and started taking in-patients in 1860. The oldest buildings on the site were constructed between 1871 and 1881 and were probably designed by George Saunders.
Balconies and, beyond, a ward sanitary tower. Photographed in July 1992. © H. Richardson
A large new block was added to the east by Trehearne and Norman, Preston and Company in 1934-5. Latterly specializing in geriatric and maternity cases, its future was uncertain in 1992.
Western (Fever) Hospital (demolished), Seagrave Road, Fulham (Fulham Hospital).A large hospital, originally for smallpox, erected by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in 1876 to the designs of the engineers, Mr Walker and Mr Crickmay. Several extensions to the hospital were carried out, notably in the 1880s and 1890s, and a new nurses’ home was built after the hospital was transferred to the London County Council in 1930. TQ 257 775, BF101128
Coppetts Wood Hospital, Coppetts Road (Hornsey Isolation Hospital; Hornsey, Finchley and Wood Green joint Isolation Hospital).TQ 279 908, BF101311
Coppetts Wood Hospital, photographed in August 1992 © H. Richardson
This isolation hospital in Muswell Hill formed the Tropical and Infectious Diseases Unit of the Royal Free Hospital in the early 1990s. Built in 1888-9 to the designs of T. de Courcy Meade, it has been added to considerably, a number of times in the 1890s, then in 1906 and 1926-7. Excepting the two-storey administrative block and the three-storey nurses’ home, all the buildings are single-storey.
Hornsey Central Hospital (Hornsey Cottage Hospital) TQ 296 889 101542
Prince of Wales General Hospital (largely demolished) (Evangelical Protestant Deaconesses’ Institute and Training Hospital). TQ 339 893 101109
The former Prince of Wales Hospital, photographed in August 1991 © H. Richardson
This general hospital was established in 1868 to be staffed by deaconesses and to provide them with training in nursing. In 1899 the deaconesses were replaced by certificated nurses. Originally situated in a converted house, purpose-built hospital accommodation was provided on the site from 1882. The original hospital expanded greatly over the years, with a new wing by Rowland Plumbe and Harvey added in 1905 and a new out-patients’ department and nurses’ home were built in 1932 to designs by C. E. Blackbourn.
St Ann’s General Hospital (Metropolitan Asylums Board North Eastern Fever Hospital) TQ 325 885 102782
St Luke’s Woodside Hospital TQ 284 893 101313
St Luke’s Woodside Hospital, photographed in August 1992, © H. Richardson
Wood Green and Southgate Hospital (Wood Green Cottage Hospital; Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital) TQ 299 915 101563
Edgware General Hospital, Geriatric Unit (Stanmore Cottage Hospital) TQ 170 917 101565
Harrow Cottage Hospital TQ 140 880 101544
Harrow Hospital (Harrow and District Hospital) TQ 150 868 101545
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore. TQ 172 939 BF101108
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, photographed in August 1991, © H. Richardson
A large, specialist orthopaedic hospital which developed from 1920 as the country branch of the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital in Westminster. A hospital had first been established on the site in 1882 by Mary Wardell for convalescent children.
Corrugated-iron ward block, photographed in August 1991, © H. Richardson
A number of new ward blocks and service buildings were added to the site in the 1930s, and hutted ward blocks were constructed during the Second World War as part of the Emergency Medical Scheme.
Old Church Hospital (Romford Union Workhouse) TQ 510 881 100675
Rush Green Hospital (Romford JHB Isolation Hospital) TQ511 867 102785
Victoria Cottage Hospital TQ 517 895 101535
Harefield Hospital, Hill End Road (Harefield County Sanatorium). TQ 052 909, BF101190
Harefield Hospital, photographed in November 1991 © H. Richardson
A fine example of a purpose-built 1930s sanatorium (despite the gloomy photograph above), established in what were originally the grounds of an eighteenth-century mansion, Harefield Park. During World War 1 the house and part of the estate were given to the Australian authorities as a convalescent hospital for wounded soldiers, and a complex of timber ward huts was erected in the grounds. After the war the deserted hospital was taken over by the Middlesex County Council and rebuilt by them as a temporary tuberculosis sanatorium. In 1935-7 the temporary institution was replaced by a fully up-to-date, permanent, concrete and brick complex, designed by W. T. Curtis, the county architect. The new sanatorium comprised various groups of buildings, but was dominated by a large, aeroplane-shaped main block, and a smaller, but similarly-planned, children’s block. Both had long curved ward wings with open sun-balconies on the south sides. In 1939 Harefield became an Emergency Medical Service hospital and three groups of ward and nurses’ huts were erected in the grounds; most of these have since been demolished. Harefield is now a general hospital with an emphasis on heart surgery and the treatment of chest disease, and the open ward balconies, once the major feature of the hospital, have been infilled and glazed.
Mount Vernon Hospital, Rickmansworth Road, Northwood. TQ 076 918, BF101191
Mount Vernon Hospital, photographed on a miserable day at the end of November 1991, same day as Harefield, © H. Richardson
The orginal buildings on the site have considerable architectural distinction. The hospital was built as a sanatorium in 1902 to designs by Frederick Wheeler. The most remarkable building is the chapel, in bold Arts & Crafts style with Art-Nouveau details. During the 2nd World War Emergency Medical Service hutted ward blocks were added to the site. Since the inauguration of the National Health Service the hospital has expanded considerably with several post-1948 developments on the site.
Northwood and Pinner Community Hospital, Pinner Road (Northwood, Pinner and District Hospital and Northwood War Memorial). TQ 100 907, BF101364
Pinner District Hospital, photographed in January 1993 © H. Richardson
A small district hospital, built in 1924 as a war memorial to the people of the area, replacing an earlier temporary cottage hospital. The architect was Leslie T. Moore. The hospital was extended in 1930.
Pinner District Hospital, photographed in January 1993 © H. Richardson
It comprises a long, two-storey red-brick building, with a hipped red-tile roof, in a neo-Georgian style. There are various later single-storey extensions.
Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford Cottage Hospital, Sipson Lane (now Sant Nirankari Mandal International Nirankari Bharan). TQ 077 778, BF101362
The former Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford Cottage Hospital, photographed in January 1993 © H. Richardson
A brick-built cottage hospital, of two storeys, erected in 1883-4. A single-storey operating theatre was added as a war memorial after World War One. It had closed by the early 1990s and acquired by the Sant Nirankari religious brotherhood.
Hounslow Cottage Hospital, Bell Road. TQ 136 755 101103 A small cottage hospital of 1880 with just six beds, designed by C. M. H. Crawshay. It was replaced by a larger building in the Staines Road in 1913.
Hounslow Cavalry Barracks Hospital (now Hounslow Cavalry Barracks, Medical Centre and Sergeants’ Mess) SU 121 756 100718
Hounslow Hospital (demolished), Staines Road. TQ 132 755, BF101183 With an above average number of beds, this cottage hospital opened in 1913 and contained two large wards of ten beds each for men and women and two small, twin-bedded wards. It was designed by J. Ernest Franck of London. A new out-patients’ department was planned to be added in 1931 to the designs of Alban H. Scott.
South West Middlesex Hospital (demolished), Mogden Lane, Twickenham (Richmond, Heston and Isleworth Joint Isolation Hospital; South Middlesex and Richmond Joint Isolation Hospital). TQ 156 746, BF101182
Admin block etc of the former South West Middlesex Fever Hospital, photographed in November 1991 © H. Richardson
This joint isolation hospital was built in 1898 to designs by W. J. Ancell. It originally comprised four ward blocks, the administration building, gate lodges and a stables and laundry block, but more than doubled its size during the 1930s. Amongst the additions of 1937 were two cubicle isolation ward blocks. All the buildings were of brick and strictly functional in appearance.
Part of the 1930s additions to the site, photographed in November 1991 © H. Richardson
The hospital was transferred to the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 and continued to treat cases of infectious disease as well as acute and geriatric patients. By November 1991 the hospital had closed and the site was due to be cleared for a commercial development.
West Middlesex Hospital (Brentford Union Workhouse) TQ 165 763 101184
City of London Lying-in Hospital (demolished), Old Street. This maternity hospital was founded in 1750 and was originally situated in a converted house. It moved to a new, purpose-built hospital, designed by Robert Mylne, in 1773. This building was demolished in 1904 to make way for a new hospital designed by H.H. and M.E. Collins. The hospital moved to Hanley Road in 1955 and the Old Street building was subsequently demolished. TQ 327 825, BF101119
Coldbath Fields Smallpox Hospital (demolished). A purpose-built, city-centre smallpox hospital, in a handsome Palladian style, erected between c.1758 and 1762 on a leasehold site in Coldbath Fields, Clerkenwell. The charity responsible for the hospital was founded in c.1746 and was thought to be the earliest of its kind in Europe. In 1793-4 the hospital removed to another new building at Battle Bridge (the site of King’s Cross Railway Station), and the Clerkenwell building was let to two distillers. TQ 312 823 101112
Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road (Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital). By the end of the 19th century the buildings of the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, at Moorfields, were no longer adequate for their purpose. The site and buildings were sold and the proceeds were used to finance a new, larger hospital, designed by Keith Young and C. K. Bedells, and erected on a new site in City Road in 1897-9. The new hospital comprised: a large ground-floor out-patients’ department, specially arranged to allow ease of circulation for the almost blind patients; a library, museum, pathological laboratory and other study rooms for the newly formed medical school; and numerous wards, administrative and staff rooms. The main block facing City Road was an attractive piece of French Renaissance design, in red brick and Portland stone. By the 1930s the out-patients’ department was too small to deal with the increasing number of patients. By 1935, all but the City Road block had been demolished and replaced by a new building, the King George V Extension, designed by Campbell-Jones, Sons & Smithers. This large five-storey block, faced with buff-coloured terracotta, also featured a ground-floor out-patients’ department, medical school facilities, wards and staff rooms.TQ 326 827, BF101120
Royal Free Hospital, Liverpool Road Branch (London Fever Hospital; now Royal Free Place).A purpose-built isolation hospital, built in 1848-9 to designs by Charles Fowler for the reception and treatment of patients suffering from all fevers except smallpox. Prior to this the institution had been situated at King’s Cross. The new hospital comprised a symmetrical arrangement of neo-Palladian buildings of brick and stone, with a central, pedimented administration block connected by half-open corridors to flanking ward wings. The main wards were partitioned or ‘back-to-back’. There was an ingenious artificial heating and ventilation system which supplied fresh air to the wards through a continuous skirting inlet. Three further ward wings were added in 1863-4 and 1869 but two of them were demolished in 1871, by which time the Metropolitan Asylums Board had assumed responsibility for the care of London’s poorest fever patients. A small isolation block, designed by Keith D. Young, was added in 1883; so successful was the design that it later formed the basis for the Local Government Board model isolation block. Expansion continued with the erection of a nurses’ home, a large service block and new, up-to-date ward blocks. The original fever wards were also remodelled. All these works were designed by Young and were carried out between 1894 and 1908. Two more isolation blocks were added in 1908 and 1937, the latter designed by Aston Webb & Son. The hospital closed in 1975. Between 1989 and 1992 most of the buildings were demolished to make way for new housing, although the main façade and some original wards were retained and incorporated as part of the development, known as Old Royal Free Square TQ 314 837, BF101122
Royal Northern Hospital, Holloway Road (Great Northern Hospital; Great Northern Central Hospital). The Great Northern Hospital was founded in 1856 in the Kings Cross area as a general hospital by a former surgeon at University College Hospital. In 1862 it briefly amalgamated with the Spinal Hospital in Portland Road before relocating to the Caledonia Road in 1864. There it remained until 1888, when a new purpose-built hospital was opened on Holloway Road designed by K. D. Young & Hall. The new hospital, renamed the Great Northern Central Hospital, comprised an imposing administration block with two ward blocks to the rear, one rectangular and one circular, with an out-patients’ department and mortuary at the back of the site. After the First World War it was decided to extend the hospital as the Islington War Memorial. In a competition for the designs the commission was awarded to H. Percy Adams & Charles Holden, but lack of funds led to their designs being built piecemeal. The first block to be commenced was the new casualty department and the memorial arch with inscriptions by Eric Gill. The foundation stone was laid in July 1923 and shortly afterwards the first section of the nurses’ home was begun. The next major addition was the paying patients block, called the St David’s Wing, which was opened in 1931 and filled the site between casualty and the nurses’ home on Manor Road. The advent of the Second World War prevented the whole of the Adams & Holden plans from being carried out and further additions to the site had to wait until after the hospital had passed to the control of the National Health Service. The large new out-patients’ department which occupies the corner of Holloway Road and Manor Road was completed in 1963 to designs by Tooley and Foster. A tower block for nurses’ accommodation was also erected at the rear of the site. TQ 302 863, BF101379
St Luke’s Hospital (demolished), Old Street. St Luke’s Hospital was founded in 1750. The first building it occupied, near Moorfields, was designed by George Dance Senior and may have incorporated part or all of an old foundry. A new site at Old Street site was acquired in 1777 and a competition held for the design of new premises. However, no immediate steps seem to have been taken at that time to carry out the planned removal and in the following year George Dance Junior, as the hospital’s surveyor was requested to draw up plans for the new building. Further delays ensued and it was not until 1782 that the final, cheaper, plan by Dance was accepted. The new St Luke’s was completed in 1787. It was of three storeys with the administrative offices in the centre and the patients’ accommodation in the flanking wings. It remained in occupation until 1917 when the building was sold to the Bank of England. TQ 326 825, BF101117
St Mark’s Hospital, City Road (St Mark’s Hospital for Fistula and Diseases of the Rectum). A specialist hospital, founded c.1835, for the treatment of fistula and diseases of the rectum. It moved to this site in 1852 into a new purpose-built hospital designed by John Wallen. Various additions and alterations were carried out subsequently. A new wing was added to the south in 1895 designed by Rowland Plumbe and a nurses’ home was added in 1936 designed by R. Kitching Ellison. TQ 319 829, BF101121
Whittington Hospital, Archway Wing, Archway Road (Holborn Union Infirmary; Archway Hospital). An unusual and impressive example of a metropolitan infirmary, designed by H. Saxon Snell and built in 1877-9. Departing from the standard arrangement of parallel rows of ward pavilions, Saxon Snell provided a large, central ward block, wider than the norm, with beds placed along partitions at right-angles to the windows. Two smaller ward wings, following the traditional pavilion pattern, were included under pressure from the Local Government Board. All the buildings were of stock brick, in a simple but dramatic Gothic style which worked effectively on the narrow sloping site. TQ 293 870, BF101067
Whittington Hospital, St Mary’s Wing, Highgate Hill (Islington Workhouse; St Mary’s Hospital). The oldest building on this site is a two- and three-storey smallpox hospital, erected in 1848-50 to designs by S. W. Daukes. It is of grey stock brick with dressings of Bath stone, in an Italianate style. Between 1898 and 1900 a new workhouse infirmary was built for the Islington Board of Guardians in the grounds of the smallpox hospital, which became the new infirmary’s nurses’ home. The infirmary is a late example of the ubiquitous pavilion-plan, poor-law hospital, and was designed by William Smith. It comprised a central administration and service block attached to four double-pavilions of wards. The contractors were Kirk & Randall. A second nurses’ home was added in c.1926. In 1930 the infirmary came under the control of the London County Council, and in 1948 was made part of the new Whittington Hospital by the National Health Service. Since then, some of the wards of St Mary’s Wing have been demolished as part of a phased scheme of modernisation and improvement. My daughter was born here in September 2000. TQ 290 869, BF101068
KENSINGTON AND CHELSEA
Brompton Hospital, Fulham Road (Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest).The hospital was founded in the 1840s for the special care of those suffering from chest diseases (in particular tuberculosis). A handsome H-plan, Tudor-style building, of red and blue brick with stone dressings, was designed by Frederick John Francis and was built in phases between 1844 and 1854, on a site on the north side of Fulham Road. The patients’ accommodation comprised groups of small wards arranged around a wide corridor, which doubled as a day room. All the wards were situated on the upper floors of the three-storey hospital, with the ground floor housing the administrative and staff rooms, and the hospital boasted a complete system of artificial heating and ventilation. A stone-faced, Perpendicular-style chapel, called St Luke’s Chapel, was added in 1849-50. The architect was E. B. Lamb, who subsequently assisted Francis with the later stages of the main building. A second large ward wing, known as South Block, was added on a site on the south side of Fulham Road in 1879-82. Designed by Thomas Henry Wyatt, this building followed the original hospital in its planning, but was designed in a Queen Anne style, with facings of red-brick and terracotta. A detached nurses’ home, by Edwin T. Hall, was added in 1898-9. TQ 269 784, BF101058
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Fulham Road (St George’s Union Workhouse; St Stephen’s Hospital). In 1991-2 a new general hospital was in the course of being built on the site of the former St George’ Union Workhouse, which moved from Westminster to Chelsea in 1858. A large infirmary was built to the south-west in 1876-8 to designs by H. Saxon Snell. TQ 263 777, BF101096
Chelsea Hospital for Women, Dovehouse Street. A compact and well-designed city-centre women’s hospital, built in 1914-16 to designs by Young & Hall. The main building is a two- and three-storey pedimented block, of red brick with stone dressings, in a neo-Wren style. The original hospital complex also contained a detached nurses’ home and a pathological block. The most unusual aspect of the design was in the arrangement of the sanitary facilities, which, although separated from the wards by the principal corridor, were incorporated within the main building. Keith Young was one of the first architects to reject the long-accepted system of sanitary towers and cross-ventilated lobbies. He argued that, ‘with the almost perfection that sanitary work has got to’, the disconnecting lobby was no longer necessary. TQ 271 783, BF101059
Cheyne Centre for Spastic Children, 62 Cheyne Walk (Cheyne Hospital for Children).A medium-sized specialist hospital for children which was founded in 1875 for long-stay and incurable patients. The present building opened in 1889 and, apart from the alteration to form a roof terrace, has not been greatly altered. It was designed by Beazley and Burrows. TQ 271 776 BF101095
Princess Beatrice Hospital, Old Brompton Road (Kensington, Chelsea and Fulham Hospital). A small London general hospital, originally established in 1887 in a converted house. The present building was the first stage of a new purpose-built hospital (never completed), designed by Aston Webb & Son, and erected in 1930-2. TQ 256 782, BF101127
Princess Louise Kensington Hospital for Children, Pangbourne Avenue (Kensington Dispensary). Founded in 1840 as a dispensary, by 1928 this institution had moved to new purpose-built premises on Pangbourne Avenue. These comprise a long, narrow group of mainly two-storey brick buildings, including an out-patients’ department, two ward wings and a nurses’ home, the last a later addition though envisaged at the outset. The architects were George A. Lansdown and J. T. Saunders. TQ 235 816, BF101111
Royal Cancer Hospital (Free) Institute of Cancer Research (Chelsea Hospital for Women). A small, five-storey purpose-built women’s hospital, erected in 1880-3 to designs by J. T. Smith. The hospital moved to new premises in Arthur Street (now Dovehouse Street) in 1916 and the building in Fulham Road, which was for a time the Freemasons’ Hospital, was taken over in 1939 as a cancer research institute. The premises were rebuilt, probably c.1939 and the present frontage shows few remains of Smith’s lively Renaissance-style façade. TQ 268 783, BF101060
The Royal Hospital, Fulham Road, Chelsea. Inspired by Louis XIV’s foundation of the Hôtel des Invalidesin 1670, and encouraged by Sir Stephen Fox and John Evelyn, Charles II founded a home for retired and disabled soldiers. The site chosen was that of James I’s disused theological college at Chelsea. Sir Christopher Wren, in his first secular commission, designed a complex of three four-storey wings arranged around a court, open to the river to the south. Work began on the site in 1682. The original hospital was a group of modest but dignified brick buildings, with porticoes, a central lantern and other architectural details of Portland stone. The central wing comprised a large chapel, panelled in oak, and a similarly large dining hall, separated by a central octagonal vestibule. The other two wings contained dormitories for the men, consisting of rows of individual cubicles either side of a central dividing wall. In 1686 four single- and two-storey pavilions were erected at the four corners of the existing building, thus forming two further courtyards. An inadequate infirmary by Wren was replaced in 1810 by a new infirmary at the west of the site, designed by Sir John Soane; this incorporated the remains of an earlier building, known as Walpole House. Soane’s infirmary was destroyed during a bombing raid in 1941. Despite alterations and additions made to the buildings by Robert Adam between 1765 and 1782, by Soane between 1809 and 1822, and again this century, Wren’s Royal Hospital, Chelsea, has not altered greatly. Although not a medical building, it was a source of inspiration for English hospital architects of the eighteenth century. TQ 279 779, BF101123
Royal Marsden Hospital (Free Cancer Hospital). The first hospital in the world to treat specifically cancer patients, it was founded in 1851 by Dr William Marsden. A purpose-built hospital was erected in Fulham Road in 1859-60, to the designs of John Young & Son, with David Mocatta as consulting honorary architect. This unusually-planned building, without any right angles, formed the basis of the rebuilding and extending of the hospital in 1885 by Alexander Graham. Subsequent additions and alterations include a nurses’ home (1904, since demolished) and an electrical and radio-therapeutic department (1912). The hospital acquired its present name in 1954. TQ 269 784 101097
St Charles’s Hospital, Exmoor Street (St Marylebone Infirmary; St Marylebone Hospital). A large workhouse infirmary built on the pavilion plan to designs by Henry Saxon Snell (senior) in 1879-81. The yellow stock brick complex is dominated by the water tower, one of the principal landmarks of North Kensington. Although Pevsner was dismissive of the ‘grim fortress-like pile’, it is a good example of its type. The infirmary was widely publicised when it was built, both in the architectural press and by the architect in his own publications. TQ 237 818, BF101110
St Luke’s Workhouse (demolished), Arthur Street. This former workhouse dating from c.1843 was originally a simple T-plan building with the usual workshops. It expanded later with two substantial ward blocks added c.1902. TQ 271 782, BF101061
St Luke’s Hospital (demolished), Sidney Street (St Luke’s, Chelsea, Workhouse Infirmary; Chelsea Infirmary). This former workhouse infirmary dating from 1872 was originally built to serve St Luke’s Workhouse on the adjacent site. It expanded later with two new ward blocks and a nurses home. TQ 271 783, BF101130
St Mary Abbots Hospital, Marloes Road (Kensington Union Workhouse; St Mary Abbots Workhouse). St Mary Abbots Hospital evolved from two separate workhouses, that for the Kensington parish of St Mary Abbots of 1848 and that for the Westminster parishes of St Margaret and St John, built in 1853. The latter was absorbed by St Mary Abbots in 1880, but all the buildings on this part of the site have now been demolished. Thomas Allom designed the ‘Guardians’ Gothic’ style workhouse for St Mary Abbots to which a large wing was added by Alfred Williams in 1871. Despite bomb damage during the second World War these buildings largely survive. However, the chapel, designed by A. W. Blomfield in 1874, was demolished in its centenary year. TQ 256 793, BF101126
Victoria Hospital for Sick Children (demolished), Tite Street (Gough House).A small central London children’s hospital, founded in 1866 in a converted Queen Anne mansion overlooking the Thames. The hospital was rebuilt and extended in 1875-6, to the designs of John J. Thomson, and in 1885-6 a new nurses’ home and out-patients’ department was added by H. Saxon Snell & Sons. Further extensions and alterations occurred at the turn of the century. TQ 278 779, BF101094
KINGSTON UPON THAMES
Claremont Hospital, St James’s Road (Surbiton Cottage Hospital). This cottage hospital was erected in 1882 to designs by Ernest Carritt. The two-storeyed brick building had the appearance of a cosy domestic villa. It provided twelve beds in small wards, an operating theatre and a room for convalescent patients. An extension was built to the rear of the building after 1912, providing additional ward accommodation. The hospital was replaced by a new building in Ewell Road in the 1930s but seems to have remained in use, changing its name to the Claremont Hospital. Latterly it has housed offices for the local Health Authority. TQ 179 674, BF101115
Surbiton Hospital, Ewell Road. A medium-sized suburban general hospital, built in 1934-6 to designs by Wallace Marchment. A roughly H-shaped main building contained a central two-storey administration unit, connecting single-storey ward wings to the south with similar maternity, operating and casualty units to the north. The wards were of the parallel-bed type, with long horizontal folding windows. The attractive grounds contained detached mortuary, nurses’ home and porter’s lodge. All were of pale brown brick, with stone dressings and steel windows, in a simple but attractive Thirties style. TQ 184 671, BF101118
Tolworth Hospital (Kingston upon Thames Infectious Hospital; Tolworth Isolation Hospital). The Tolworth Isolation Hospital was established in 1887 by the Rural Sanitary Authority. It was designed by W. Jacomb Gibbon & W. H. Woodroffe and provided 18 beds. Little change occurred until the 1930s when new ward pavilions were erected to the designs of P. J. B. Harland, which included a cubicle isolation block in which the single rooms were hexagonal. This block, however, was destroyed during the Second World War. The hospital was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 when it continued to act as an infectious diseases hospital. It was more recently used as a long-stay hospital. TQ 192 659, BF101348
Belgrave Hospital for Children, Clapham Road. Having been founded in Pimlico in 1866, this specialist institution moved to Kennington Oval at the turn of the century to a new purpose-built hospital, designed by Henry Percy Adams and his new partner Charles Holden, and built in phases between 1899 and 1926. Adams designed a quasi-cruciform plan, with separate ward wings linked by connecting corridors and bridges, thus ensuring the isolation of any wing during an outbreak of infectious disease. In addition to the main building, there was also a large out-patients’ department and a small mortuary block. Holden, in his first executed work, announced himself as a major new innovative designer. His elevations, with their powerful massing of vertical forms and pared-down architectural detailing, are a highly personal reinterpretation of vernacular and Arts-and-Crafts architecture, and feature many of the motifs which were to characterize his mature style. TQ 312 775, BF55401
British Home and Hospital for Incurables, Crown Lane. Founded in 1861 by disaffected board members of the Royal Hospital for Incurables, this institution moved in 1894 to a new purpose-built hospital in Streatham, designed by Arthur Cawston. Cawston accidentally killed himself before the building was completed and was succeeded by Edwin T. Hall. The new hospital comprised two asymmetrically-arranged three-storey ward blocks with rooms for 50 patients and resident staff. Hall later added a small private chapel and an entertainment hall, both part of Cawston’s original plan but delayed until sufficient funds were available. All the buildings were of red brick with stone dressings, in an attractive neo-Tudor style, and there were numerous raised terraces, with balustrades of pink terracotta, where the patients could appreciate the surrounding garden. Much emphasis was placed on the creation of a comfortable domestic environment, with inmates divided into separate groups or ‘families’, each with their own sleeping accommodation, day rooms and facilities. A further wing, the Queen Alexandra Wing, was added in 1912. TQ 317 711, BF101349
King George V Military Hospital, Stamford Street (HMSO Works Store; Cornwall House). Designed by R. J. Allison as the new H. M. Stationery Office of Works Stores, this reinforced-concrete warehouse block was requisitioned by the War Department before its completion in 1914 and converted, to designs by E. T. Hall and E. S. Hall, as a temporary hospital for wounded servicemen. TQ 311 803, BF101173
General Lying-in Hospital, York Road. A rare example of a small early-nineteenth-century specialist hospital. Established elsewhere in 1765, this lying-in institution moved to a new purpose-built hospital, designed by Henry Harrison, which opened in York Road in 1830 (currently listed Grade 2). Originally of basement and two storeys, the building acquired a third storey during improvements and alterations in the 1870s, under the supervision of W. Eassie. A nurses’ home, designed by E. Turner Powell, was added on the adjacent site in 1930-33. TQ 308 798, BF101171
Lambeth Hospital (St Mary, Lambeth, Workhouse) TQ 316 788 101038
Royal Waterloo Hospital, Waterloo Road (Universal Dispensary for Children; Schiller International University). Situated just to the south of Waterloo Bridge, the hospital is a particularly good example of a central London specialist hospital. It was founded as a dispensary in 1816 and moved into a new building, designed by David Laing, on the present site in 1823-4. This was demolished to make way for the present building in 1903. The new hospital was designed by M. S. Nicholson, and is an exuberant example of the free-Renaissance style popular at the time, with elevations of red brick and terracotta, arcaded balconies, and a plentiful supply of Art-Nouveau style bas-reliefs. It continued in use until 1976 and the building was occupied by the Schiller International University in the early 1990s.TQ 311 802, BF101172
St Thomas’s Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road. This once imposing hospital was the first great civilian pavilion-plan hospital erected in England. St Thomas’s had been founded in the twelfth century as part of the Priory of St Mary Overie, closed briefly when the monasteries were dissolved by Henry VIII, and was re-founded by Edward VI. The old hospital was largely rebuilt at the end of the seventeenth century but in the mid nineteenth century it was finally forced to move by the expansion of the railway at London Bridge. Henry Currey was appointed as architect for the new hospital which was to hold 600 beds, and a pavilion plan, as recently employed at the Herbert Hospital, Woolwich, was adopted. Currey’s plans were approved in 1865, work began in 1868 and the hospital was opened in 1871. It comprised six ward pavilions with a long spinal corridor linking them to the administration block, the chapel, out-patients’ department and operating theatres. A medical school was built to the south of the main hospital. Only minor alterations were made to the hospital until 1937, when a new nurses’ home (Riddell House) was erected to designs by Sir Edwin Cooper. Severe bomb damage sustained in 1940 left the three northern ward pavilions in a perilous condition and they were subsequently demolished and replaced by a modern cubic ward block, designed by York, Rosenberg and Mardall. TQ 307 794, BF101079
South London Hospital for Women, Clapham Common South Side. A substantial specialist hospital for women and children which was founded to provide a hospital where women could be treated by doctors of their own sex. The first building on the Clapham Common site opened in 1916. It was designed by Marcus E. Collins. Much of his hospital was obliterated in the extensions and remodelling by Sir Edwin Cooper carried out between 1927 and c.1935. The full scheme was left incomplete in 1939 when further work was interrupted by the Second World War. TQ 289 744, BF101135
South Western Hospital (South Western Fever and Smallpox Hospital) TQ 305 756 102775
Weir Cottage Hospital TQ 292 735 101550
Grove Park Hospital, Marvels Lane (Greenwich Union Workhouse) TQ 410 727, BF101088
Grove Park Hospital, photographed in July 1991 © H. Richardson
This large hospital complex was designed in 1897 by Thomas Dinwiddy as a new workhouse for the Greenwich Union. It comprised separate pavilions with covered walkways linking them to the central chapel and dining-halls, and was to accommodate 815 aged and able-bodied paupers. The workhouse was converted into a sanatorium in 1926 and remained in use as a TB and chest hospital after transferring to the National Health Service. Latterly the buildings were used as a home for people with additional support needs. By the early 1990s the future of the buildings was uncertain, with plans for redeveloping the site.
Hither Green Hospital (Park Hospital). TQ 387 741, BF101399
One of the ward pavilions, Hither Green Hospital, photographed in May 1993 © H. Richardson
One of a number of fever hospital provided in and around London by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in the 1890s, this was erected in 1895-7 on an elevated 20-acre site at Hither Green. The architect was Edwin T. Hall, whose design was highly commended, although some alterations and improvements were made before construction began. An attractive group of mainly single-storey buildings at the entrance provided porter’s lodge, discharge rooms and a medical education department. The main administrative buildings were situated at the centre of the awkwardly-shaped site, with four diphtheria or enteric fever pavilions to one side, and eight scarlet fever pavilions, arranged in pairs, to the other.
Covered way connecting the ward blocks, photographed in May 1993 © H. Richardson
All the ward blocks were of two storeys and were connected by open covered ways. Smaller isolation wards were also provided, as well as a laundry, boiler house, water tower and a large nurses’ home, arranged in three blocks connected by glazed passages. All the buildings were of stock yellow brick, with dressings of red brick and terracotta, with the exception of a handsome Medical Superintendent’s House near the entrance, of red brick, stone and tile-hanging. When opened on 12 July 1897 the hospital provided accommodation for 548 fever patients and was said to be the largest fever hospital in the country. As a result of the decline in the number of cases in the early years of this century the hospital was converted for the treatment of children and re-opened in 1910. Despite some demolition and extensions the hospital is still much as built in 1895-7. In the 1990s it was a hospital for geriatric patients, but was scheduled for closure.
New Cross Hospital (South Eastern Fever Hospital) TQ 354 774 102776
Atkinson Morley’s Hospital (Atkinson Morley (or Morley’s) Convalescent Hospital) TQ 223 701, BF101345
This large plain building was designed, probably by Edward and John Kelly, as a convalescent home in conjunction with St George’s Hospital, Westminster. It was built in 1867 with generous funds left by Atkinson Morley, who died in 1858. Morley had been the proprietor of the Burlington Hotel and left a number of bequests. The T-plan hospital comprised administration offices, a large chapel and wards and dayrooms for the patients. In the 1940s it began to take head injury cases to relieve St George’s Hospital and after it was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 it developed as an acute hospital.
Durnsford Lodge Hospital (Wimbledon Hospital for Infectious Diseases) SU 258 716, BF102783
Nelson Hospital, Kingston Road. A small general hospital, built in 1911-12 for the people of Merton in memory of Admiral Lord Nelson, a former resident of the district. Comprising three parallel one- and two-storey blocks, two for wards and one for administrative and staff rooms, it was designed by Francis Hatch and R. Allsebrooke Hinds. All the buildings were simple neo-classical blocks, of stock brick with dressings of red brick and some stone. The hospital was extended by the addition of an extra wing, the Memorial Wing, in 1921-2, and a further block was added in 1930, designed by R. J. & J. S. Thomson; both follow the original buildings in design and appearance. A two-storey nurses’ hostel was added in 1947 to designs by Lanchester & Lodge. TQ 247 695, BF101347
North Wimbledon Hospital (demolished), Copse Hill. This small general hospital was built in 1912 to replace an earlier cottage hospital. The architect was T. G. Jackson. His design, comprising two single-storey wards extending southwards from a two-storey administrative and staff block, forming a U-plan building, was criticized as ‘singularly inappropriate to the needs of a hospital’. TQ 227 704, BF101346
Wilson Hospital (Wilson Cottage Hospital), Cranmer Road, Mitcham.
This large cottage hospital, built in 1928, originally provided 30 beds, including six beds for children and four private wards. The handsome principal elevation comprising a two-storeyed administration block flanked by single-storeyed ward wings, was faced with Dorking bricks and given generous stone dressings. The funds for founding the hospital were provided by Mr and Mrs Isaac Wilson, after whom it was named. Chart, Son & Reading drew up the original plans and also designed the new ward block, operating theatre and out-patients’ department, which were added in 1934. In 1948 the hospital was transferred to the National Health Service, which is still responsible for its administration. In 1993 the buildings appeared little altered since 1948. TQ 278 680, BF101396
Albert Dock Hospital (Seamen’s Hospital, Royal Victoria and Albert Dock) TQ 416 812 101561
East Ham Isolation Hospital TQ 418 824 102777
East Ham Memorial Hospital TQ 418 842 101571
East Ham Memorial Hospital, Children’s and Out-Patients’ Unit (East Ham Cottage Hospital; Passmore Edwards Hospital) TQ 430 830 101572
Newham Maternity Hospital (demolished) (Whitechapel Industrial School; Forest Gate Hospital), Forest Lane, Forest Gate. An industrial school erected in 1852-4 by the Whitechapel Guardians. The main building was an impressive, three-storeyed symmetrical red brick range with round-arched windows on the ground floor. The school later became a branch workhouse, first for Poplar and then for West Ham, before developing into a hospital, specializing in maternity cases. It was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 but closed some time after 1986. Most of the buildings on the site had been demolished by July 1992 and the main building was in a derelict condition. TQ 399 852, BF101271
Plaistow Hospital (West Ham Fever Hospital) TQ 411 832 102778
St Mary’s Hospital for Women and Children TQ 404 827 101596
West Ham and Eastern General Hospital TQ 391 842 101570
Chadwell Heath Hospital (Ilford UDC Isolation Hospital) TQ 469 886 102780
Claybury Hospital (Fourth Middlesex County Pauper Lunatic Asylum), Manor Road, Woodford Bridge. Claybury Hospital was built as the fourth County Pauper Lunatic Asylum for Middlesex. It was designed on an échelon plan by G. T. Hine in 1888 and built in 1889-93. The site included the modest country house, Claybury Hall, of c.1790, which was retained and extended for private patients. The hospital complex is a good example of a large late-nineteenth-century asylum. It is listed Grade II. TQ 435 915, BF101107
Goodmayes Hospital (Chadwell Lunatic Asylum; West Ham Asylum) TQ 463 887 101582
Harts Hospital (Hart House; Harts Sanatorium) TQ 404 922 102779
Jubilee Hospital TQ 400 915 101569
Wanstead Hospital (Merchant Seamen’s Orphan Asylum; Convent of the Good Shepherd), Hermon Hill. A handsome Venetian-Gothic edifice, designed by George Somers Clarke Senior, the Merchant Seamen’s Orphan Asylum was erected at Wanstead in 1861-3, providing two wings of dormitories, classrooms and schoolrooms for both boys and girls. This was to be the initial phase in the construction of a larger complex. The building had polychromatic walls of red and black bricks, with dressings of Ancaster stone, and architectural sculpture by Thomas Earp, much of it of a suitably nautical character. A detached chapel was built later in 1863, and a grand central dining hall, with a lofty timber roof, was erected in 1866, both again by Somers Clarke. The orphanage was completed in 1867-71, when an extension to the boys wing and an infirmary were added, the latter attached to the main building by a short covered corridor. A swimming pool was provided sometime in the 1880s. The infirmary proved to be too large for the needs of the institution and a second, smaller infirmary was built at the north of the site in 1900-01, designed by Arnold Mitchell, surveyor to the orphanage from 1898-1913. The orphanage moved to other premises in Berkshire in 1920, and the site at Wanstead was acquired by the Convent of the Good Shepherd as a home for fallen women. In 1937 the Essex County Council purchased the site, which has since then been used as a hospital by both them and, after 1948, the National Health Service. The main building and chapel are listed Grade 2* and Mitchell’s infirmary is listed Grade 2. The Victorian buildings were disused and their future uncertain in 1992. TQ 405 892, BF101160
RICHMOND UPON THAMES
Normansfield Hospital, Kingston Road, Teddington. Established in 1868 by Dr John Haydon Langdon-Down, Normansfield Hospital for mentally handicapped children originally occupied a converted house which was extended by Rowland Plumbe. The theatre erected in 1877-9 is a particularly fine example with many of its original features surviving. TQ 173 702, BF101325
Royal Hospital (Richmond Infirmary; Richmond Hospital) TQ 189 742 101568
St John’s Hospital TQ 164 736 101295
Teddington Memorial Hospital (Teddington, Hampton Wick and District Memorial Hospital) T Q 155 710 101560
Blackfriars Skin Hospital (demolished), Blackfriars Road (Blackfriars Hospital for Diseases of the Skin). A small but cleverly-planned specialist hospital, designed by William A. Pite and built in 1914-18. An out-patients’ department, dispensary, lecture theatre, X-ray department, pathological department and wards were all accommodated in an attractive, vernacular-style brick building on an awkward corner site. TQ 316 801, BF101174
Dulwich Hospital, North Wing (demolished), Constance Road (Camberwell Union Workhouse; St Francis’ Hospital). A pavilion-plan workhouse, erected in 1892 for the Camberwell Board of Guardians to designs by T. W. Aldwinckle (of Wilson, Son & Aldwinckle). It comprised a central administration section, with an imposing red-brick entrance arch, flanked by rows of plain, four-storey stock-brick dormitory blocks. Used since 1930 as a hospital, firstly by the London County Council and latterly under the National Health Service, the buildings were demolished in 1993. TQ 333 752, BF101153
Dulwich Hospital, East Dulwich Grove (St Saviour’s Union Infirmary). A separate poor-law infirmary, designed by Henry Jarvis for the St Saviour’s Union to help ease pressure on their existing accommodation, was erected on a 6½-acre site at Dulwich by Kirk & Randall in 1885-7. It consisted of a central administration and resident staff section, flanked on either side by two three-storeyed, turreted blocks of Nightingale wards, connected by a three-storey corridor one-eighth of a mile in length. There was a large chapel over the main entrance. Of red brick with dressings of Ancaster stone, in a neo-Flemish style, the buildings have more architectural character than is usual for an institution of this type; this was due to a stipulation by the original freeholder that the infirmary be designed ‘with a view to producing a pleasing effect’. TQ 334 751, BF101154
Evelina Hospital for Sick Children (demolished), Southwark Bridge Road. The fourth children’s hospital to be established in London, the Evelina Hospital was founded by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in 1867 and opened two years later in a substantial purpose-built hospital. It was designed by Marsh Nelson. TQ 320 794, BF101159
Guy’s Hospital, St Thomas’ Street. Thomas Guy established his hospital primarily in order to provide for the incurable and lunatic patients refused admission to St Thomas’s Hospital where he was a governor. The site, just across the road from St Thomas’s, was acquired by him in 1722 and plans for the hospital drawn up by Thomas Dance. Guy himself died in 1724 and the hospital was completed in the following year. At this stage it comprised a rectangular block with two inner quadrangles. On the ground floor open colonnades looked out onto the courts, and the central dividing wing had an open arcade on the ground floor. The wards – which by the later nineteenth century were L-shaped, running along two sides of each square – had opposing windows which must have made them relatively well ventilated. Two wings to the north, possibly part of the original design, were added by James Steer in 1738-41 and Richard Jupp in 1774-7. The later, west wing contained the hospital chapel at the centre, an elegant galleried design which contains a fine marble monument to Thomas Guy as well as his mortal remains in the crypt. In 1774, Jupp also provided the original building with a grand new entrance front with a pediment supported by giant Ionic columns. One of the more important later additions to the site was the lunatic ward block erected in 1797 to the south of the main building. It was designed on a modified radial plan with just two ward wings containing single cells on both sides of a central corridor. The building was later demolished to make way for the expanding medical school. The first medical school building dates from about 1825 and was situated to the south of the lunatic block. The next major building work to take place on the site was not until the middle of the nineteenth century when Hunt’s House, a new ward block, was commenced. Designed by Rhode Hawkins it was built in two sections in 1853 and 1871 and contained double wards of the type provided at the London Fever Hospital in 1848-9. From c.1890 J. H. T. Woodd and Ainslie were employed as the hospital architects and they produced plans for Guy’s Hospital College, containing accommodation for the medical students, the Henriette Raphael Nurses’ Home (1902), and also the new medical school buildings (completed 1913). After the First World War a block for paying patients was built with money from Lord Nuffield, and during the Second War the York Clinic was built for psychological medicine. The clinic was designed by William Walford and J. Murray Easton and was the first of its kind to be built as part of a general hospital. In 1948 the hospital was transferred to the National Health Service. Wartime plans prepared by Alner Hall to rebuild the whole hospital were abandoned and Alexander Gray of Watkins, Gray & Partners was commissioned to produce the designs for the new expansion scheme (1957-61). This comprised a new surgical block (New Guy’s House), new wards, research departments, and a dental hospital and school in Guy’s Tower. TQ 328 801, BF101151
Bethlem Hospital (now Imperial War Museum) T Q 314 792 101994
King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill. King’s College Hospital was founded in Westminster in 1839 as a teaching hospital attached to the college. Originally it occupied the former workhouse of St Clement Danes but this had been replaced by a new building in 1854-61 designed by Thomas Bellamy. It had remained in increasingly out-dated accommodation for the rest of the nineteenth century before steps were taken to remove the hospital to more modern premises in a better area. In 1904 11 acres of land at Denmark Hill were purchased by the Honourable W. F. D. Smith, M.P. and presented to the hospital governors. Six of the leading hospital architects of the day were invited to submit their designs for a new building and from these the plans of William Alfred Pite were selected. Pite designed a large pavilion-plan complex; it comprised a six-storey administration block, flanked by single-storey buildings containing casualty, out-patients’ and medical school departments, with, to the rear, a range of seven ward pavilions, of two and three stories, and a chapel. (The design was later modified to include eight ward pavilions, although only five of these were built.) All were of brick with stone dressings, in a picturesque Edwardian classical style. The general contractors were Messrs Foster and Dicksee of Rugby and the foundation stone was laid by Edward VII on 20 July 1909. Progress was slow and the first section of the hospital was not completed until 1913 when it was formally opened by George V on 26 July. In 1937 a private patients’ wing was added to the designs of Collcutt & Hamp. TQ 325 760, BF101080
Maudsley Hospital T Q 327 762 101152
Royal Eye Hospital (?demolished) (Royal South London Ophthalmic Hospital), St George’s Circus. The Royal South London Ophthalmic Hospital was rebuilt on its existing site to designs by Keith D. Young and opened in 1892. It had an extensive out-patient department on the basement and ground floor with in-patient and staff accommodation on the four floors above. Many aspects of the plan were specially designed with the blind or partially sighted in mind, and advice in this respect was given to the architect by one of the hospital’s surgeons, Professor McHardy. The building was empty and in poor condition in 1991 and seemed likely to be demolished. TQ 316 795, BF101175
St Giles’s Hospital, St Giles’ Road/Havil Street (Camberwell Union Infirmary). An ambitiously-designed poor-law infirmary complex, of which precious little now remains. It was completed in 1903 for Camberwell Board of Guardians by Edwin T. Hall, incorporating two earlier poor-law buildings on the same site; these were a three- and four-storey infirmary block of c.1873, designed by W. S. Cross, and a fashionable circular ward tower, with four storeys of 24-bed wards, erected in 1889-90 to designs by Robert P. Whellock and C. Osborne. Hall added to these a complex of new buildings, including an administration block, four four-storey ward pavilions, a nurses’ home, operating theatre, kitchen, laundry, and mortuary, as well as new guardian’s offices and a relief station. All the buildings were of red brick and stone, many with attractive Arts-and-Crafts elements, and were connected to each other and to the existing buildings by covered ways. Although technically a parish infirmary, the complex was closer in vision and scale to contemporary general hospitals, and was equipped to deal with accident and acute cases of all kinds. The site was taken over by the London County Council (LCC) in 1930 and renamed St Giles’ Hospital. Most of the site has been demolished recently to make way for a residential development, leaving only Hall’s administration block, one ward pavilion, his guardians’ offices, the earlier circular ward tower (now converted to luxury flats) and an LCC out-patients’ department of the 1930s. TQ 332 769, BF101170
St Olave’s Hospital (Rotherhithe Parish Workhouse; St Olave’s Union Workhouse; Bermondsey and Rotherhithe Infirmary) TQ 351 793 100832
St Thomas’s Hospital, St Thomas Street. The foundation of St Thomas’s Hospital is generally placed about 1106 and linked with the Priory of St Mary Overie in Southwark. The name with which the hospital was early associated, the hospital of St Thomas the Martyr, must date to some time after 1173 when Becket was canonized. In the early thirteenth century a fire destroyed the priory buildings. When these were rebuilt, the hospital was moved to a new site on the east side of Borough High Street. There the hospital remained in operation until 1540 when Henry VIII closed it down as part of the dissolution of the monasteries. A little over ten years later Edward VI responded to the pleas of the Lord Mayor and allowed him to take over the buildings so that the hospital could be reopened. It then changed its name to the hospital of St Thomas the Apostle. The Board of Governors comprised various representatives of the City. In addition, a treasurer, hospitaller, clerk, butler, steward and surgeons were appointed for the day-to-day running of the hospital. By the later sixteenth century the hospital seems to have comprised six large wards and four small ‘sweat’ wards, these being for cases of venereal disease. New wards were added in 1583 and 1638, and in 1681-2 a new entrance gateway was erected facing Borough High Street. The plans for this were drawn up by Nathaniel Hanwell and it had a stone frontispiece with a statue of Edward VI, as the re-founder of the hospital, and four figures representing the sick poor. The stone work was executed by the hospital’s mason, Thomas Cartwright. Sir Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor of London in 1679, provided funding to rebuild the hospital which was carried out between 1693 and 1709. This began at the east side of the site with Clayton Court, a new square of buildings comprising new wards. Edward Square was erected to the west and included a new chapel. On the west side two wings were built on the north and south sides known as Frederick’s Wards and Guy’s Wards. At about the same time old St Thomas’s church was demolished and rebuilt on the same site in 1700. In the 1830s Frederick’s and Guy’s Wards were demolished and new larger ward wings erected in 1833-5 (north wing) and 1840-42 (south wing). It was not long after their completion that the expansion of the railway led to the hospital governors having to remove to a new location. After much argument and delay this finally resulted in the new St Thomas’s Hospital on Lambeth Palace Road, designed on a pavilion plan by Henry Curry, which formed a stately counter-balance to the Houses of Parliament on the opposite side of the river. TQ 327 802, BF101158
Carshalton War Memorial Hospital, The Park (Carshalton, Beddington and Wallington War Memorial Hospital). A small district hospital, originally established in 1899, but which removed to the present building, erected as a memorial to local war dead, in 1924. The hospital is a mainly two-storey building of red brick, with advancing ward wings and a distinctive low, hipped roof. It was extended in 1930, and has been added to since to form a modified butterfly plan. There is also a detached nurses’ home, provided c.1930 by an anonymous donor. TQ 278 639, BF101394
Cheam Hospital (Croydon and Wimbledon Joint Smallpox Hospital) T Q 234 659 102781
Cuddington Isolation Hospital (Epsom, Sutton, Carshalton and Leatherhead JHB Isolation Hospital) TQ 246 609 102764
Queen Mary’s Hospital (The Southern Hospital; Queen Mary’s Hospital for Sick Children) TQ 278 625 101395
Royal Marsden Hospital (Surrey Branch) The Surrey branch of the Royal Marsden was established in the 1950s. Work began on the new buildings in 1953 and the first stage completed in 1956. Existing buildings (parts of the former Downs Hospital) on the site were converted to form a patients’ hostel of twelve beds, a radio-physiological section of the physics department, and offices. Plans by Lanchester and Lodge for a new hospital on the site were submitted to the Ministry of Health in 1956, approved the following year, but with limited funding phased construction necessary.
Royal Marsden Hospital, photographed in 2012 Photo © The Saunterer (cc-by-sa/2.0)
Work began in November 1959 on the first stage to provide three wards, treatment unit, pathology department, diagnostic X-rays, and a temporary operating theatre as well as physics laboratory, workshops etc. For the new building a reinforced concrete frame on the flat slab system was employed, clad in brick with concrete panels or with glass and coloured panels. The patients’ hostel was enlarged to form a nurses’ home. The first phase of the new hospital was opened by the Queen in May 1963. A further ward unit was added in 1968, but the second phase was not built until the 1970s. [Sources: The Hospital, April 1960 pp.259-65: Lost Hospitals of London]
St Helier Hospital, Wrythe Lane. An impressive and enormous general hospital built practically on the eve of the Second World War. It was designed for Surrey County Council by Alfred Saxon Snell and Phillips and the foundation stone was laid in March 1938. Of steel-framed construction with brick infill the whole complex was faced with white-painted cement render. TQ 265 662, BF101393
Sutton Hospital (Sutton and Cheam General Hospital) TQ 250 640 101524
Sutton Hospital (Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital) T Q 259 642 101548
Wandle Valley Hospital (Wandle Valley Isolation Hospital) TQ 277 667 102786
Bethnal Green Hospital (largely demolished), Cambridge Heath Road (Bethnal Green Union Infirmary). This large workhouse infirmary was built to designs by Giles, Gough and Trollope and opened in 1900. It was transferred to the National Health Service in 1948 and was latterly used as a geriatric hospital. It closed c.1990 and was largely demolished by February 1992. TQ 350 832, BF101229
East London Hospital for Children TQ 354 808 101595
London Chest Hospital, Bonner Road (City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest). An important London specialist hospital, providing treatment to sufferers from consumption and other chest diseases in the East End. It was designed by F. W. Ordish, of Leicester, and, as opened in 1855, comprised a three-storey rectangular building in the William & Mary style, of red brick with Portland stone dressings. The hospital contained small wards, for two to four beds, grouped on one side of a linking corridor, a similar arrangement to that at the earlier Brompton Chest Hospital in west London. Later additions included: a chapel (built 1858-60, destroyed 1941) designed by E. B. Lamb; a southern ward wing (1863-5), by William Beck; a northern ward wing (1871-81, damaged 1941 and since replaced), by Beck & Lee; and a nurses’ home (1905, destroyed 1941), by R. Langdon Cole. The building once sported cast-iron balconies (since filled in) to offer proper open-air treatment to the patients, and a steel and glass ‘Crystal Sanatorium’ was once planned for the hospital by Joseph Paxton, but was never built. Despite much ward damage and post-war expansion, the main façade of the hospital retains much of its original appearance and features some impressive decorative sculpture. TQ 354 833, BF101116
Mildmay Mission Hospital, Austin Street (Mildmay Medical Mission Hospital). This small general hospital was established in 1876 and moved to its present site, to a new, purpose-built hospital, in 1892. The new building was designed by R. Hill and combined its medical function with a missionary role. The location of the hospital in this particularly poor district was an important factor in this respect. TQ 336 826, BF101227
Mile End Road Accident and Emergency Hospital, Bancroft Road (Mile End Old Town Workhouse; Mile End Hospital). A large workhouse site, comprising a workhouse, gate-lodge, casual wards, workhouse school, detached infirmary, children’s infirmary and imbeciles block, built in 1858-9 to designs by W. Dobson. All the buildings were of red brick, in a plain neo-Tudor style. A larger infirmary, designed by J. M. Knight, was added in 1880-3, replacing the existing small infirmaries. The school buildings were later used as a nurses’ home and were extended in the 1930s; at the same time a small, single-storey brick out-patients’ department was erected. There have been numerous additions and alterations to the site and the hospital, latterly an accident and emergency hospital, was threatened with closure in the early 1990s. TQ 359 825, BF101167
Poplar Hospital (demolished), East India Dock Road (Poplar Hospital for Accidents). This hospital opened in 1855 in a converted tavern to treat victims of accidents at the nearby docks. Many later alterations and additions were made to the hospital, including two large ward wings, of 1891-4 and 1900-1, designed by Rowland Plumbe, and a 1930s out-patients’ department, designed by J. G. Oakley. The hospital was demolished in 1981-2. TQ 384 811, BF101213
Poplar Institution (demolished), Poplar High Street (Poplar Union Workhouse). A typical, sprawling metropolitan poor-law institution, comprising a series of plain, brick buildings of various dates. A classical entrance block, a ward wing and a workshop range were erected in 1815-17 on a site occupied by the local workhouse since 1757. The new buildings were designed by James Walker. Children’s accommodation, sick wards and casual wards were added at a later date, and the workhouse was completely rebuilt in 1869-72 to a simple pavilion plan designed by John Morris & Son. Subsequent additions were made in the 1880s and 1890s, designed by Walter A. Hills. The buildings were damaged during World War 2 and were demolished in 1960. TQ 377 807, BF101212
Poplar Union Infirmary (demolished), Upper North Street. Originally an isolation hospital, established in an old farmhouse during the first cholera epidemic of 1831-2. A second building was added by J. W. Morris of Poplar in 1849 and subsequently the infirmary was used to treat infectious cases from Poplar Workhouse. The infirmary was demolished in 1894. TQ 375 812, BF101211
Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children, Hackney Road (East London Hospital for Children). This east London specialist hospital, originally established in 1868 in two disused warehouses, moved to new purpose-built premises, designed by William Ward Lee and constructed between 1867 and 1880. A nurses’ home and new laundry were added in 1905-7, to designs by Gale, Gotch and Leighton. A new entrance block, containing administrative offices and wards, was added facing Hackney Road at some time prior to 1914. TQ 343 832, BF101228
Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel Road (London Hospital) Established in a converted house in 1740, the London Hospital moved to a new purpose-built hospital on Whitechapel Road in 1752-9. The building was designed by Boulton Mainwaring. The front range was completed in 1759 and the two rear wings added in 1775 and 1778. There were a number of major additions to the site including the Alexandra Wing (1866), the Grocers’ Wing (1876), the out-patients’ department (1903), and the Edith Cavell Nurses’ Home (1916). The original buildings have since been replaced by a new hospital close by. In 2017 plans were in hand to convert the old hospital into a new town hall. TQ 347 816, BF101164
St Andrew’s Hospital, Devon Road ‘s (Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum). A typical pavilion-plan London poor-law infirmary, chiefly of stock brick, built in 1871 following the recommendations of the Metropolitan Poor Act (1867). The architects were A. & C. Harston, who designed a complex comprising four three-storey ward pavilions arranged either side of a central administrative block. The two central pavilions were twice the width of the end pavilions, and contained back-to-back wards divided by a partition. The infirmary accommodated about 600 patients, the same number as St Thomas’s Hospital, but at one tenth of the cost. The Harstons added two more ward blocks c.1892, and a nurses’ home, designed by a Mr Pearson, was added in 1893-6 and extended in 1928. The hospital was renamed St Andrew’s Hospital in 1920. TQ 379 824, BF101387
St Clement’s Hospital (City of London Union Workhouse) T Q 368 826 101169
St Peter’s Hospital (demolished), Vallance Road (Whitechapel Union Workhouse; Whitechapel Union Infirmary). Built as a union workhouse c.1842, but by 1888 in use as an infirmary. It comprised two main parallel brick ward blocks, of five and six stories respectively, connected by a two-storey central section containing the administrative offices. A medical officer’s residence and dispensary were added in c.1889 by Bruce J. Capell. TQ 345 820, BF101165
South Grove Institution (demolished), Mile End Road (Whitechapel Union Workhouse). The Whitechapel Union Workhouse was constructed on a long narrow site behind the Mile End Road between Lincoln Street and South Grove in about 1872. It was just to the west of the larger City Union Workhouse. When it was taken over by the London County Council in 1930 it had accommodation for 685 inmates. TQ 367 825, BF101168
Connaught Hospital (Holmcroft; Leyton, Walthamstow and Wanstead Hospital) T Q 381 898 101564
Langthorne Hospital, Thorne Close (West Ham Union Workhouse). The large West Ham Union was established in 1836 and comprised the parishes of West Ham, Wanstead, Little Ilford, Walthamstow, Low Leyton, Woodford and East Ham. It was a particularly poor district which was expanding rapidly. Shortly after the formation of the Union plans were prepared for a workhouse. This was built in 1839-41 to designs by Alfred Richard Mason. It followed the common design for this date with a large T-plan block with lower wings to the rear producing twin courtyards. Almost as soon as the workhouse was completed it was filled with the ever increasing number of paupers in need of relief and by 1845 it was necessary to extend the premises. Amongst subsequent additions to the workhouse over the next few years were a ward for epileptics and further accommodation for infants, for which Mason prepared plans in 1848. In 1864-5 a detached infirmary was added, designed by Curtis and Son, which held 200 beds. TQ 390 860, BF101162
Thorpe Coombe Hospital, Forest Road (Northbank House). An early-twentieth-century hospital built on the site of a mid-eighteenth century house. The house, formerly known as Northbank House, was extended to form the nurses’ home of the new hospital, which comprised a group of plain brick structures erected in the grounds. Q 382 898, BF101157
Whipps Cross Hospital (West Ham Union Infirmary) TQ 389 886 101163
Opened in 1903 as a separate site infirmary to serve West Ham Poor Law Union. The architect was Francis Sturdy. It became known as Whipps Cross Hospital in 1917, when it was being used to treat wounded troops from the First World War. [Sources: see Whipps Cross Hospital – Our History]
Battersea General Hospital (National Anti-Vivisection Hospital) T Q 276 767 101559
Bolingbroke Hospital, Bolingbroke Road. The Bolingbroke was established as a general hospital in 1880 in a converted mansion house. Various additions and extensions were built from 1901, when the out-patients’ department was built to designs by Young and Hall. The same architects continued to act for the hospital into the 1930s, designing the large William Shepherd Wing, facing Wandsworth Common, and the new entrance block on Wakehurst Road from 1925. The mansion itself was demolished in 1937. The buildings have since been converted into a school. TQ 273 746, BF101086
Brocklebank LCC Institution (demolished), Garratt Lane (Wandsworth and Clapham Union Workhouse). A large, sprawling workhouse complex, designed by T. W. Aldwinckle and built c.1886 for one of the most populous of London’s poor-law districts. The site comprised four three-storey pavilions grouped around a central administration block, with separate workshops, receiving wards and a children’s house. TQ 260 737, BF101189
Fountain Hospital (demolished), Tooting Grove (Fountain Temporary Fever Hospital). A temporary fever hospital, erected by the Metropolitan Asylums Board (MAB) at Tooting, at the height of a combined outbreak in the capital of scarlet fever and smallpox. The hospital, a ‘pavilion-plan’ arrangement of single-storey ward huts, was designed by Thomas W. Aldwinckle, the MAB architect, and included separate isolation blocks, nurses’ homes, domestics blocks, administrative offices, workshop, boiler-house, laundry and mortuary. In 1911 the hospital was converted for the treatment of mentally subnormal children. It was demolished in the 1960s to make way for the new St George’s Hospital at Tooting. TQ 271 714, BF101133
Grove Fever Hospital (largely demolished), Tooting Grove. A large fever hospital for acute cases, the Grove Hospital was erected in 1896-9 in response to the increasing incidence of scarlet fever and smallpox in London, and was the eleventh permanent hospital provided by the Metropolitan Asylums Board (MAB). It contained a variety of specialist ward blocks, including pavilions for scarlet fever and diphtheria cases, and separate isolation ward blocks of various sizes. Most of the complex was demolished in the 1970s and 1980s to make way for St George’s Hospital, but a number of the original buildings remain and function as part of the new hospital. TQ 268 713, BF101134
Putney Hospital TQ 232 759 101567
Queen Mary’s Hospital, Roehampton Lane. Queen Mary’s was founded in 1915 as a hospital and limb-fitting centre for wounded soldiers at Roehampton House, a mansion built in 1710-12 by Thomas Archer and extended in 1911-13 by Edwin Lutyens. The original hospital comprised the converted house and a group of wooden huts in the grounds. A permanent complex of brick huts was erected in 1924-5. With the outbreak of war in 1939 a second complex of brick huts was added; this included an underground operating theatre. Queen Mary’s was functioning as an acute general hospital in 1991, although it retained its responsibility for the treatment of disabled ex-servicemen. TQ 223 743, BF101188
Royal Hospital and Home, West Hill, Putney (Royal Hospital for Incurables). An institution to provide relief to incurable patients was founded in 1854 by Dr Andrew Reed. After several years in temporary accommodation, the hospital moved to Melrose Hall (formerly West Hill), Putney, a three-storey mansion house designed by Jesse Gibson and built in c.1796. The house was extended by W. P. Griffith, who designed two large, chunky flanking ward wings in a suitable classical style; these were erected in 1863-4 and 1867-8 and followed the basically domestic layout of the house, with extra wide corridors to accommodate wheelchairs and beds. A third large wing was added in 1879-81 to designs by Searle Son & Hayes; this contained attractive day-rooms and an impressive neo-classical assembly room. Subsequent additions include a further wing (1901-2), a sitting room for ladies (1909), and a nurses’ home (1934-5) in the hospital grounds. The word ‘incurables’ was dropped from the hospital name in 1987. TQ 242 741, BF101114
Royal Victoria Patriotic Building, Trinity Road, Wandsworth Common (Royal Victoria Patriotic Asylum; Third London General Hospital). A large temporary hospital for wounded soldiers, erected in 1915 beside the Royal Victoria Patriotic Asylum at Wandsworth Common. The Patriotic building, designed by Major Rohde Hawkins and built in 1857-9 as an orphanage for dependents of servicemen lost in the Crimean War, was converted to house some wards and the administrative and service facilities. A complex of wooden and iron ward huts, designed by J. Pain Clark, was added in the grounds adjoining the orphanage. TQ 269 743, BF101224
St James’s Hospital (demolished), St James’ Road (Wandsworth and Clapham Union Infirmary). Originally built as a pavilion-plan union infirmary in 1910, to the designs of James S. Gibson, FRIBA, this general hospital was extended by the London County Council in the 1930s, when further ward pavilions, a new admissions and out-patients’ block, and an extension to the nurses’ home were built. An important feature of the design was the placing of the WCs in projecting wings near the centre of the ward pavilions, thus allowing room for large day-rooms and sun-balconies at either end. A new out-patients’ department, by A. H. Devereux and E. L. W. Davies, was added in 1953. The hospital was due to be demolished in 1991-2. TQ 277 732, BF101074
St John’s Hospital, St John’s Hill (Wandsworth and Clapham Union Workhouse; Wandsworth and Clapham Union Infirmary). A large, cruciform-plan brick workhouse was erected c.1837 on the north side of St John’s Hill to serve the newly-formed and populous Wandsworth and Clapham Poor Law Union. A small, detached infirmary was built in 1849. In 1868-70 a new, larger, H-plan infirmary was added to the site; this was designed by Beeston Son & Brereton and incorporated the old infirmary as one of its four brick-built, pavilion ward wings. After 1886, when the site was designated as an infirmary, the old workhouse buildings were converted to wards and several new buildings were added, including: a small mortuary house; a Queen Anne style nurses’ home, of 1898-9, by Lansdell & Harrison; and a trio of additions dating from c.1903, comprising a block of receiving wards, a home for servants and a small reception and waiting-room block at the main entrance. The hospital had closed by the early 1990s when it was awaiting redevelopment. It has since been converted to housing. TQ 265 751, BF101085
Springfield Hospital, Glenburnie Road (Surrey County Pauper Lunatic Asylum). Built in 1839-41 as the first Surrey County Pauper Lunatic Asylum. A grand Tudor-style building of red brick, it was designed by William Moseley (with some alterations and additions by Edward Lapidge) on the ‘corridor’ system. Further wings were added by Lapidge in 1847-9 and 1868, and by C. H. Howell in 1873-4. Numerous detached buildings erected in the grounds of the main asylum include three gate lodges, a small cottage hospital (1872), a chapel (1879), two water towers (1885, since demolished), an annexe for idiot children designed by Rowland Plumbe (1897), an infirmary (1931), and a nurses’ home (1937). TQ 271 725, BF101087
Tooting Bee Hospital (largely demolished), Tooting Bec Road (Tooting Bee Asylum). Tooting Bec was built in 1899-1903 by the Metropolitan Asylums Board (MAB) as an infirmary for sick imbeciles, later becoming a hospital exclusively for senile dements. It was designed by A. & C. Harston with a pavilion plan similar to those of the first imbecile asylums built in the 1860s by the MAB at Leavesden and Caterham (both designed by Giles & Biven). The hospital was extended in 1915-25 when seven new ward blocks, designed by Thomas W. Aldwinckle, were added. The ward pavilions at Tooting Bec had ‘escape bridges’ designed to facilitate the removal of imbeciles from the upper floors during emergencies and to double as verandas during sunny weather. Much of the site had been demolished by the early 1990s to make way for a new residential development. TQ 269 712, BF101131
WESTMINSTER, CITY OF
Charing Cross Hospital, Agar Street. The hospital was founded in 1815 in Leicester Place. From 1818 it was known as the West London Infirmary and Dispensary, it was renamed the Charing Cross Hospital in 1827. The site in Agar Street was acquired in 1830 and work on the new building began in the following year to designs by Decimus Burton. A major scheme of additions and alterations was carried out in 1902-4 by A. Saxon Snell, providing new accommodatoin in two wings to the rear of the main hospital. These wings comprised the surgical ward block on King William Street (now William IV Street), and the Nurses’ home on Chandos Street (now Chandos Place). In 1926 the former Ophthalmic Hospital, built 1831-2 at the apex of this triangular site, was acquired by Charing Cross Hospital. In 1973 the hospital moved to a new hospital in Fulham Palace Road and the original buildings had a variety of occupants before being converted in 1991-2 for business premises. TQ 302 806, BF101011
Charter Nightingale Hospital, Lisson Grove (Institution for Sick Governesses; Florence Nightingale Hospital). Founded as a small, specialist women’s hospital in 1850 it moved to Lisson Grove in 1909 to a new building designed by Claude W. Ferrier. TQ 274 819, BF101043
Coldstream Guards Military Hospital TQ 295 788 101023
Bessborough Street Clinic, Bessborough Street (Maternity and Child Welfare Centre). This city-centre maternity and welfare centre was designed by F. Milton Harvey and opened in 1937, providing a day nursery, night wards and staff accommodation. Of red brick with Portland stone dressings, the four-storey building is in the neo-Georgian style typical of many medical buildings of the period. TQ 297 783, BF101026
Dental Hospital of London (demolished), 40-41 Leicester Square. This building, on the south side of Leicester Square, was occupied between 1874 to 1901 by the Dental Hospital of London. In 1901 the hospital moved to a new purpose-built structure elsewhere in Leicester Square, and the old building was later demolished to make way for the Leicester Square Theatre. TQ 298 807, BF101032
Ear, Nose and Throat Department of University College, 42-43 Dean Street (Royal Ear Hospital). A rare example of the Art Nouveau style applied to a small specialist hospital. The building was designed by Rogers Field and A. D. Collard and was erected in 1903-4. The (Royal) Dispensary for Diseases of the Ear was founded in 1816 and from c.1861 until 1876 was located in a house in Dean Street. In 1876 the dispensary moved to No. 66 Frith Street, where an in-patients’ department was opened. It relocated to Huntley Street in the 1920s. In the early 1990s this building housed a restaurant and Chinese Health Resource Centre. TQ 297 812, BF101004
Empire Hospital for Paying Patients, Vane Street/Vincent Square. Begun in 1912 the Empire Hospital was established to provide between 40 and 50 beds for middle-class patients in single-bed wards. It was designed by Wilberforce E. Hazell, FRIBA, of Tavistock Square, and was built around a small inner courtyard, 30 feet by 24 feet. It had frontages to Rochester Row on the north-west, Vane Street on the south-west, and Vincent Square on the south-east. The site was soon criticized and the building condemned for having been designed more on the lines of a hotel than on those of a hospital. Ironically, the building was later converted into a hotel. TQ 295 789, BF101021
Gordon Hospital, Vincent Square (Western Hospital for Fistula and Diseases of the Rectum). This specialist institution was founded in 1884, opening in a converted house in Vauxhall Bridge Road. This was replaced between 1930 and 1939 by a new purpose-built hospital designed by Young & Hall. This seven-storey neo-Georgian building, of red brick with stone facings, contained administrative and outpatients’ departments on the ground floor, with general wards designed on the ‘alcove’ principle on the upper floors. TQ 296 787, BF101020
Grenadier Guards’ Military Hospital, Rochester Row. This small city-centre military hospital, dating from the early- to mid-nineteenth century, is a simple, barrack-like three-storey structure, of stock brick, and appeared to be occupied by the Military Police in the early 1990s. TQ 294 789, BF101024
Grosvenor Hospital for Women, 27-29 Vincent Square (Pimlico and Westminster Institute; Grosvenor Hospital for Women and Children). A purpose-built specialist hospital, with detached single-storey out-patients’ department, designed by the firm of Roumieu & Aitchison and built in 1896-7. Both buildings are of red brick and terracotta, in a simple neo-Byzantine style typical of the partnership. Numerous additions and alterations have been made to the buildings, but they have retained much of their original appearance. The hospital closed in 1976 and the buildings were occupied by Westminster Under School in the early 1990s. TQ 297 787, BF101019
Harley Street Clinic T Q 286 818 101051
Home and Hospital for Crippled Boys, 4 Margaret Street. A very small specialist hospital run by the All Saints’ Sisterhood. It was founded c.1883. The existing building dates from 1899 and was designed by Lander, Bedells, and Crompton of Bedford Row, London. TQ 293 814, BF101056
Hôpital et Dispensaire Français, 40A Lisle Street and 10 Leicester Place. (French Hospital). A small general hospital for French-speakers in London, established here in the 1860s in converted residential premises in Soho. In 1890 the hospital moved to a new purpose-built home in Shaftesbury Avenue T Q 298 808 101031
Hospital for Consumption, 26 Margaret Street (Infirmary for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest and Throat; now West End Blood Donor Centre). A small central London chest hospital built in 1915, to designs by F. M. Elgood, to replace an existing building. The institution had been founded in 1847. Later used as a chest clinic, the building is now a Blood Donor Centre. TQ 290 814, BF101055
Hospital for Women, Soho Square (Hospital for Diseases of Women). An early specialist women’s hospital, perhaps the earliest in the country, founded in 1843. It moved to No. 29 Soho Square in 1852, expanding in 1867 and 1882 with the acquisition of No. 30 Soho Square and No. 2 Frith Street. Nos 3-4 Frith Street were acquired in c.1908. The present façade, with its unifying facing of stucco and white faience tiles, was designed by H. P. Adams in 1909; an earlier scheme by Adams for an imaginative rebuilding of the site had been rejected because of lack of money. The hospital closed in c.1989 and is listed Grade 2. TQ 297 811, BF101006
Hospital of St John and St Elizabeth, Grove End Road, St John’s Wood. A purpose-built hospital, run by a catholic organisation founded in 1856, offering care to patients requiring long-term treatment and nursing. The building was erected in 1898-1901 to designs by Edward Goldie and included as its central feature the reconstruction of a chapel of Gesu-type, designed in 1864 by his father, George Goldie, as part of the institution’s original complex at Great Ormond Street. Three floors of large pavilion wards were provided in the end wings of the U-plan building, and other facilities included private wards, an operating theatre and a roof-top promenade. By 1907 the hospital was offering open-air treatment to sufferers from pulmonary tuberculosis. Modern additions include an attractive white-rendered hospice designed by David Morley Architects and completed in 1992. TQ 266 832, BF101045
King Edward VII’s Hospital for Officers TQ 284 818 101050
King’s College Hospital (demolished), Portugal Street. Founded in 1839 as a teaching hospital in connection with King’s College, it originally occupied the former St Clement Danes Workhouse. A new building was erected in 1854-61 to designs by Thomas Bellamy and provided beds for 200 patients. The hospital remained on this site in Portugal Street until 1913 when it removed to large new premises on Denmark Hill. Shortly afterwards the old building was demolished. TQ 309 812, BF101014
Lister Hospital, Chelsea Bridge Road (British Institute of Preventive Medicine; Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine). The impressive pink-brick building was originally named the British Institute for Preventive Medicine. It is a grade 2 listed building, designed by Alfred Waterhouse and built c1894-8 with additions to the north by Alfred and Paul Waterhouse, c.1909. By the early 1990s it formed part of the private Lister Hospital with a new block adjoining. TQ286 781, BF101027
Lock Hospital (demolished), Grosvenor Place, Hyde Park Corner. Established in 1746 by William Bromfield, Surgeon to the Prince of Wales, in a house half-way down Grosvenor Place, Hyde Park Corner, this was the first modern hospital in England exclusively to treat venereal disease. Admission was free to all classes, although no patients, once cured or discharged, were allowed readmission. A chapel was added adjoining the house in c1764, and this became an important element in the rehabilitation of the patients. This ‘moral’ aspect of the treatment was augmented by the establishment of an asylum for penitent females in a nearby house in 1787. In 1842, with the lease to the property nearing expiry, the institution moved to a new, purpose-built lock hospital at Paddington, and shortly after the buildings at Hyde Park Corner were demolished to make way for new housing. TQ 286 796, BF101028
London Clinic, 20 Devonshire Place. The London Clinic was established as a private hospital in 1932. It was built to designs by C. H. Biddulph Pinchard who created a monumental street façade for this large central London hospital. TQ 284 821, BF101125
Middlesex Hospital (largely demolished), Mortimer Street. Established as the Middlesex Infirmary in 1745 in two houses in Windmill Street, this historic London institution moved to a new purpose-built hospital erected on a site on the Berners Estate in 1755-7. Designed by James Paine, it was an H-plan, three-storey Palladian building, of brick. However, only the central portion of the hospital opened in 1757, the flanking west and east wings being added in 1770 and 1780 respectively. The ward wings were extended in 1834 by George Basevi, and again in 1840 by T. H. Wyatt, who added a fourth storey. The earliest addition to the site was a Medical School building, designed by Basevi, added in the garden to the rear of the hospital in 1835. The greatest period of expansion occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when a large complex of subsidiary buildings was erected around the main hospital, eventually occupying the entire island site formed by Mortimer, Cleveland, Riding House and Nassau Streets. These buildings included: a Training Home for Nurses (1868-9); an out-patients’ department and staff accommodation (1884, M. Wyatt); a Nurses’ Institute, Residential College and Medical School buildings (1886-7, K. D. Young); new cancer wards and research facilities (1897-9, K. D. Young, extended 1910, E. T. Hall); and a new pathology department (1914, K. D. Young). However, the most remarkable addition was the hospital chapel (1890-1), designed by the renowned ecclesiastical architect John Loughborough Pearson as a memorial to Major Ross, chairman of the board of governors. Pearson designed a lavish interior, sumptuously decorated with marble and mosaic, which was not completed until c.1937 by his son, Frank Pearson (the chapel survives). By the late 1920s the old main block was in danger of falling down, and a new hospital was designed by Alner W. Hall and built in phases between 1927 and 1935, retaining many of the surrounding buildings. Hall followed the H-plan of the old hospital, lengthened and widened it, and shifted the whole slightly east, allowing the chapel to be extended. The new hospital was also much higher than before, comprising seven floors above ground and two below. Of red brick and Portland stone, the new hospital incorporated some classical motifs in homage to the building it replaced. At the same time Hall converted his partner Young’s earlier residential College and Nurses’ Home into a private ward wing, known as the Woolavington Wing. Other additions which accompanied the rebuilding of the hospital were: the conversion (1926) of an old workhouse on Cleveland Street to a hospital annexe (now the out-patients’ department); the Courtauld Institute of Biochemistry, Cleveland Street (1927); another private wing (1929, later a college residence), adjoining the west wing of the main block; and a large, detached nurses’ home on Foley Street (1929-31, extended 1937, now John Astor House), all designed by Hall. There were also many post-1945 additions. More recently the Middlesex merged with University College Hospital, and was subsumed within the new UCH building on the Euston Road. TQ 293 817, BF101181
National Heart Hospital, Westmoreland Street (National Hospital for Diseases of the Heart). The National Hospital for Diseases of the Heart and Paralysis (subsequently known as the National Heart Hospital) was founded in c1874, and occupied converted premises in Soho Square until a new purpose-built specialist hospital was erected in St Marylebone in 1913-14. The new building was designed by Harold Goslett and, in common with many of the specialist hospitals of the period, featured a variety of up-to-date facilities in a compact, city-centre building, designed on the ‘vertical’ system of planning popular at the time. It has since been largely rebuilt behind the retained façade. TQ 284 817, BF101049
National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Maida Vale (London Infirmary for Epilepsy and Paralysis). This purpose-built hospital for the treatment of nervous disorders was designed by Keith Young, of Young & Hall, and was erected in two stages, in 1901-3 and 1913. The institution, founded in 1866, had previously occupied converted premises elsewhere in north London. The neo-Georgian building, of red brick and stone, provided both large wards for general patients and single-bed wards for rest-cure patients, and a physical exercise room was situated on the ground floor, adjoining the out-patients’ department. An attractive feature was the series of balconies, supported on paired stone columns, facing the road at first-, second- and third-floor level. TQ 265 824, BF101039
Nature Cure and Anti-Vivisection Hospital, Oldbury Place (Nature Cure Clinic). The Hospital was founded in 1928 by Miss Nina Hosall, and moved to No. 13, Oldbury Place in 1946. The present building was opened on 2nd June 1976 by Lord Brochway. TQ 282 820, BF101048
Paddington Green Children’s Hospital This central London specialist hospital began life in 1862 as a dispensary in Bell Street, St Marylebone. By 1883 the institution had moved to two houses at Paddington Green, which were converted by Roger Smith & Gale for hospital use. In 1894-5 these makeshift facilities were replaced by a new purpose-built hospital, which included pavilion-plan wards with balconies and a small out-patients’ department, designed by H. P. Adams in his customary Jacobean style. The out-patients’ department was enlarged and improved in 1911, and again in 1934, by A. E. Munby, but most of these extensions have since been demolished. The hospital closed in 1987 and by the early 1990s the building was being used as a refuge for the homeless. TQ 268 818, BF101034
Paddington Hospital (demolished), Harrow Road (Paddington Union Workhouse). Built under the Metropolitan Poor Act, 1867 as the Paddington Workhouse. The sick wards were extended in the following year together with a dispensary and relief offices. Further extensions were carried out in 1874 and a new infirmary was opened in 1886 on ground between the workhouse and the Lock Hospital. The infirmary block was designed by A. & C. Harston. The Workhouse and Infirmary were transferred to the LCC after the Local Government Act, 1929. In 1968 it became the Harrow Road branch of St Mary’s Hospital and finally closed c.1986. TQ 253 819, BF101035
Paddington Hospital (demolished), Harrow Road (Lock Hospital; Female Lock Hospital). This purpose-built lock hospital, providing treatment and relief for sufferers from venereal disease, was designed by Lewis Vulliamy and erected in phases from 1841 onwards. As venereal sufferers were seldom confined to bed and required less ward space than other types of hospital patient, they were housed in large, dormitory-type wards. A large perpendicular-style chapel was provided, emphasizing the moral and spiritual side of the treatment. Further additions included a nurses’ home by Horatio Porter (1909). The hospital closed in 1952 and has since been demolished. TQ 253 819, BF101036
Queen Alexandra Military Hospital (part demolished), Bulinga Street. The Queen Alexandra Military Hospital was opened on 1st July 1905 and was built to replace three regimental hospitals operated by the Brigade of Guards which existed in Vauxhal Bridge Road, Rochester Row and Warwick Way. It may have been designed by Harry B. Measures, and constructed by the Royal Engineers. Measures is certainly credited with the design of the chapel. The hospital finally closed in 1977, superceded by the Queen Elizabeth Military Hospital at Woolwich. The Queen Alexandra buildings were taken over by the Tate Gallery. Subsequently two of the ward pavilions and the former mortuary and disinfecting station were demolished. TQ 301 787, BF101018
Queen Charlotte’s Maternity Hospital (demolished), Harcourt Street (General Lying-in Hospital; Queen Charlotte’s Lying-in Hospital). Although its date of foundation is frequently given as 1752, following the Dublin lying-in hospital and two others in London, this early lying-in hospital can claim to be the first such institution established in Britain. It appears to have originated in a small lying-in infirmary in Mayfair, opened in 1739 by Sir Richard Manningham, a renowned obstetrician. Its subsequent history is clouded by frequent changes of name and location until 1813, when the Old Manor House, Lisson Grove, was acquired as the hospital’s new home. In 1855 the house, no longer fit for its purpose, was demolished and a new purpose-built maternity hospital, designed by Charles Hawkins, was erected on the site in 1855-7. The design of this three-storey building, with its arrangement of small, three-bed wards grouped around a common corridor, was severely criticised by Florence Nightingale, whose misgivings were borne out by alarmingly high rates of mortality among the patients. Among subsequent alterations were a new sanitary wing, added in 1878, and a new ward wing, designed by F. W. Hunt and erected in 1885-6. In 1898-9 a detached nurses’ home was built nearby. In 1940, at the height of the Blitz, the hospital finally moved to a new complex erected on a site at Ravenscourt Park, Hammersmith. The old building in Marylebone was demolished c.1984. TQ 274 817, BF101044
Radium Institute, 1 and 3 Riding House Street. Designed by T. Phillips Figgis, of Figgis & Munby, this radium institute was the first of its kind in the country. It was erected in 1909-11, the gift of Lord Iveagh and Sir Ernest Cassel, the latter a friend of King Edward VII. The King had been treated with radium in Paris and was keen to popularize the new methods in England. The new institute accommodated both rich and poor patients, who had separate entrances and were kept apart inside. The building was an attractive example of the popular Baroque style of the time, with the main front faced entirely in Portland stone. TQ 290 816, BF101052
Royal Dental Hospital of London, 31-36 Leicester Square (Dental Hospital of London). First established in 1858, the Dental Hospital of London was housed at No. 32 Soho Square from 1860-73. It moved to Nos. 40-41 Leicester Square in 1874. The need for a new building on a new and larger site was recognized by 1897 when the adjacent site was acquired. A purpose-built hospital was constructed in 1899-1901 to designs by Young and Hall. Originally of four storeys, the asymmetrical building housed shops in a tall ground-floor arcade. TQ 299 807 101009
Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, 234 Great Portland Street (National Orthopaedic Hospital). A substantial purpose-built, specialist hospital, built in 1907 to designs by Rowland Plumbe. It comprised the hospital block, on an awkward site between Great Portland Street and Bolsover Street, and a separate out-patients’ department and nurses’ home on the opposite side of Bolsover Street. The hospital transferred to Stanmore in the 1980s and the building converted to business premises, but the out-patients’ remains in the 1930s extension to the east block. TQ 289 821, BF101054
Royal National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital (demolished), 32-33 Golden Square (Free Dispensary for Throat Diseases; Hospital for Diseases of the Throat). The Free Dispensary for Throat Diseases was founded in 1862 by Sir Morell Mackenzie, principally to carry out research and treatment made possible by the invention of the laryngoscope eight years earlier. In 1865 the institution moved to No. 32 Golden Square. The late-seventeenth-century house there had been previously occupied by the London Homeopathic Hospital from 1851-56, but became a Turkish bath house in 1861. The house was demolished in 1882 and a new purpose-built hospital, designed by C. L. Luck, was constructed on the same site in 1883. The adjoining property was demolished in 1912 and an extension built. The hospital was demolished in 1987. TQ 293 804, BF101002
Royal Orthopaedic Hospital (demolished), 15 Hanover Square and 297 Oxford Street (Institution for the Cure of Club Feet and Other Contractions). This was the home, from 1856 until 1904, of London’s first orthopaedic hospital and was a conversion of the existing house in Hanover Square with its outbuildings fronting Oxford Street. In 1907 the hospital amalgamated with the National Orthopaedic Hospital to form the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital and moved to a new building in Great Portland Street. TQ 288 811, BF101000
St Anne’s Workhouse, 14 Manette Street.A four-storey (originally three-storey), five-bay stuccoed parish workhouse, domestic in style, designed by James Paine and built in 1770-1. In the 1990s the building was used for commercial purposes. It is listed Grade 2. TQ 298 812, BF101007
St George’s Hospital, Hyde Park Corner (now Lanesborough Hotel). One of London’s historic general hospitals, established in 1733 and originally occupying Lanesborough House, a three-storey brick country house facing Hyde Park, then on the outskirts of London. Before opening as a hospital in January 1734, the building was extended by the addition of two ward wings, designed by Isaac Ware. By the 1820s St George’s was unable to meet the demand for beds and a new hospital was designed by William Wilkins in an imposing neo-Greek style, in recognition of the growing importance of the site, near to Buckingham Palace. Wilkins’s hospital followed the H-plan of the original building, but was re-oriented to face east. The main façade of the three-storey stone building was dominated by a monumental portico of square Doric columns; these and other elements of the design were based on the Choragic Monument of Thrasyllus, in Athens. An attic storey, added to the end pavilions in 1859 by A. P. Mee, and extended by him behind and above the central pediment, in 1868, ruined Wilkins’s fine proportions. Mee also added sanitary towers and medical school buildings. The hospital was further improved in the 1870s and 1890s. Many plans for complete rebuilding were produced during the twentieth century, but two World Wars and financial stringency prevented these being realised. However, in 1980 the patients moved to a new modern St George’s Hospital, erected on a site in Tooting, and the old hospital building at Hyde Park Corner remained empty until its purchase in 1988 by a consortium from Abu Dhabi and its conversion into a luxury hotel. TQ 283 797, BF101029
St John’s Hospital for Diseases of the Skin, 5 Lisle Street.A picturesque early Renaissance-style building, apparently of terracotta, with an enormous stepped gable and three-storey oriel window. It was designed by Frank T. Verity and erected in 1897. Originally a French club, it was acquired by St John’s Hospital c.1936 and converted by their architect, A. Bryett, for hospital use. TQ 298 808, BF101008
St John’s Hospital for Diseases of the Skin (demolished), 49 Leicester Square. This specialist hospital, one of the first in England to treat skin complaints, was founded by John Laws Milton in 1863, in a house in Church Street, Soho. It later moved to No. 45 Leicester Square, which, after the opening of a separate in-patients’ facility in Chelsea, was devoted to out-patients only. In 1888 the institution moved to No. 49 Leicester Square, a 17th-century house, which was adapted by Edward Clark for hospital use. By the turn of the century this building was too cramped, and it was demolished and replaced by a purpose-built out-patients’ hospital, designed in a lavish Free Renaissance style by Treadwell & Martin. St John’s Hospital moved again, in 1935, to a French Club in Lisle Street, and Treadwell & Martin’s building at No. 49 Leicester Square was demolished. TQ 298 807, BF101030
St Luke’s Hospital (demolished), Hereford Road (St Luke’s Hospital for Advanced Cases: Hereford Lodge). St Luke’s Hospital for Advanced Cases first opened in 1893 in Osnaburgh Street as a branch of the West London Mission. In 1901 it moved to Hampstead and 2 years later moved to North Kensington, where it remained until 1923, when the purpose-built hospital was constructed in Hereford Road. It provided 48 beds. It was latterly renamed Hereford Lodge. TQ 254 807, BF101037
St Mary’s Hospital, Praed Street. A voluntary general hospital, founded in 1845 to serve the expanding suburbs of north-west London. The original building, which still forms the centre of the present complex, was designed by Thomas Hopper, and built in three separate phases of 1845-51, 1865-7 and 1882-4, under the supervision of Hopper, William Young and Stephen Salter respectively. By completion in 1884 the hospital included a medical school (erected 1851, enlarged 1882-4) and an out-patients’ department (1882-4). A large extension, the Clarence Memorial Wing, was added in 1892-1904, facing Praed Street. This was designed by William Emerson and is currently listed Grade 2. Grandiose plans by Sir Edwin Cooper for the rebuilding and extension of St Mary’s in the 1930s were never realised in full, although Cooper did build a new Medical School and Research Institute (1931-3), Nurses’ Home (1933-6, unfinished) and a wing for private patients, the Lindo Wing (1937). A second grand scheme for expansion, by A. W. Hall, was abandoned in 1948. St Mary’s has undergone considerable reconstruction and enlargement in the 1960s and 1980s. TQ 268 813, BF101042
St Marylebone Workhouse (demolished), Northumberland Street. St Marylebone parish workhouse was established by 1792. Additions were made in 1868 by H. Saxon Snell and by A. Saxon Snell in 1888-98 after the erection of a separate workhouse infirmary in Notting Hill. The buildings were all demolished in the 1960s. TQ 281 819, BF101046
St Peter’s Hospital, 25-29 Henrietta Street (Hospital for Stone). Founded in 1860 as the Hospital for Stone, it was originally housed at No. 42 Great Marylebone Street (now No. 34 New Cavendish Street). In 1863 it was renamed the St Peter’s Hospital for Stone and moved to No. 54 Berners Street. The site in Henrietta Street was leased to the Hospital by the Duke of Bedford and the present building was designed by John McKean Brydon in 1880-81. The plans were approved in 1881 by Henry Clutton, who acted as consultant architect to the Bedford Office. One of the stipulations made by the Office was that the building should be suitable for possible future conversion into housing. The ground floor was designed to be occupied by shops. TQ 303 808, BF101012
St Philip’s Hospital, Portugal Street (Strand Union Workhouse; Sheffield Street Hospital). The present buildings were built c.1903 to replace the Strand Union Workhouse in Bear Yard which was demolished as part of the Strand and Kingsway Improvement Scheme. It provided casual and receiving wards. From 1920 the buildings were administered by the Metropolitan Asylums Board and functioned as a VD hospital for women and girls. TQ 307 812, BF101013
Samaritan Free Hospital for Women, Marylebone Road (Gynaepathic Institute Free Hospital). This hospital was founded in 1847 by Dr William Jones as the Gynaepathic Institute Free Hospital, in Gay Street. It moved several times, taking over the Marylebone Dispensary in 1854. In 1869 it claimed to provide the first block in Britain with pay-beds for patients with limited means. The institution moved to Marylebone Road in 1889, to a new purpose-built hospital designed by W. G. Habershon & Fawckner. It was renamed the Samaritan Free Hospital for Women in 1904. TQ 275 818, BF101040
Scots Fusilier Guards’ Military Hospital (demolished), Lillington Street. A small, H-plan, city-centre military hospital, dating from the mid-nineteenth century. TQ 294 787, BF101025
Shaftesbury Hospital, Shaftesbury Avenue (L’Hopital et Dispensaire Francais; French Hospital). The Shaftesbury Hospital is a good example of a late- nineteenth-century central London hospital. It was built as a general hospital for French speaking people and is of moderate size with an elegant French Renaissance main elevation. It was designed by Thomas Verity in 1890 and extended by Clayton & Black in 1910. The plan, which is not of the pavilion type, shows a certain ingenuity in dealing with an awkward, triangular site. The hospital was still in use in the early 1990s. TQ 300 812, BF101070
Temporary Iron Smallpox Hospital (demolished), Broadway. In January 1871 the Board of Guardians for St George’s (Hanover Square) Union agreed to the erection by the Petty France Workhouse Visiting Committee of a temporary iron hospital for smallpox cases at St Ermin’s Hill, Broadway, Westminster. The building was to be 130 ft by 20 ft, large enough to accommodate forty patients according to the requirements of the Poor Law Board (i.e., allowing 850 cubic feet per patient). The building cost £580 to erect, including the provision of brick foundations and a cistern for water, drains, etc. It is not known how long the building remained in use. TQ 297 794, BF101033
University College Dental Hospital (demolished), Great Portland Street (National Dental Hospital). The new premises of the National Dental Hospital and College, built to designs by A. E. Thompson, was opened in February 1894. The building was smallish, of red brick, and occupied a site on Great Portland Street at the corner with Devonshire Street. Pevsner described the building as ‘nicely detailed [and] … well-proportioned … with Renaissance decoration in the cornice’. Facilities provided included a ‘stopping room’ for the accommodation of 75 patients, special demonstration rooms, a lecture hall, and laboratories. The heating, ventilation and hot-water systems were provided by Russell & Co., of Berwick Street, London. The hospital later became the University College Dental Hospital, and has since been demolished and replaced by a modern building on the main hospital site. TQ 288 820, BF101053
West End Hospital (demolished), 73 Welbeck Street (West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Paralysis and Epilepsy).This small city-centre hospital, specializing in the treatment of nervous disorders, was established in 1878 in converted premises in St Marylebone. At first the hospital provided beds for children only, but, following a rebuilding in 1891 and the conversion in 1906 of a former nursing home in nearby Bulstrode Street, it began to admit adult patients. TQ 285 813, BF101047
West End Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, 91 Dean Street (Male Lock Hospital). One of many hospitals designed by Alfred Saxon Snell, this small central London lock hospital was built between 1911 and 1913. It is of red brick and stone, in an attractive neo-Georgian style. The hospital had occupied a converted house on the same site since 1862. It was later used as a hospital for nervous diseases. In the early 1990s it was a Department of Social Services Resettlement Unit for homeless men. TQ 296 813, BF101005
Western Ophthalmic Hospital T Q 276 818 101041
Westminster Children’s Hospital (part demolished), Vincent Square (Infants’ Hospital). This specialist institution for the study and treatment of nutritional disorders and diseases among infants – the first of its kind in England – was founded in 1903 by (Sir) Robert Mond in a disused home for cripples in Hampstead. In 1907 the hospital moved to a new building in Westminster, designed by Read & Macdonald, which provided wards for 50 infants, laboratories, nurses’ accommodation and a lavish oak-panelled lecture room decorated by M. Daniel Barlet. A block containing a new laboratory, out-patients’ facilities and nurses’ rooms, also designed by Read & Macdonald, was added in 1909-14; later additions include a new out-patients’ block (1932), an additional in-patients’ block (1934) and a nurses’ home (1934), all designed by C. Stanley Peach and E. Stanley Hall. TQ 294 787, BF101022
Westminster Hospital (demolished), Broad Sanctuary. The Westminster Hospital was founded in 1715 as a charitable society. An infirmary was opened in 1720 in a converted house. In 1831 the site at Broad Sanctuary was acquired and a new purpose-built hospital erected there to designs by William & Charles Inwood. The hospital was superceded by the new Westminster Hospital in St John’s Gardens which opened in 1939. The old hospital was demolished in 1951. TQ 299 795, BF101015
Westminster Hospital, Page Street. This large teaching hospital, designed by Lionel Pearson of Adams, Holden & Pearson, was built in 1933-9 to replace the former hospital at Broad Sanctuary. TQ 301 789, BF101016
Westminster Union Workhouse (demolished), Poland Street (St James’s, Westminster, Workhouse). Built as a parish workhouse in 1725-7, to designs by John Ludby, the building was extended in 1821 and totally rebuilt in 1858. In 1868 the workhouse was taken over by the newly-formed Westminster Union. Its site was occupied by a multi-storey car park by the early 1990s. TQ 293 812 101003